Longa, P., Naehrig, M.: Speeding up the number theoretic transform for faster ideal lattice-based cryptography. No, Aristotle Didn’t Write “A Whole is Greater Than the Sum of Its Parts” July 6, 2018 Springer, Heidelberg (1998), Howgrave-Graham, N.: A hybrid lattice-reduction and meet-in-the-middle attack against NTRU. "The whole is greater than the sum of its parts." Cryptology ePrint Archive: Report 2016/435 The Whole is Less than the Sum of its Parts: Constructing More Efficient Lattice-Based AKEs Rafael del Pino and Vadim Lyubashevsky and David Pointcheval Abstract: Authenticated Key Exchange (AKE) is the backbone of … In: Pointcheval, D., Johansson, T. describe methods for overcoming this hurdle and provide a new quantitative picture of the mitochondrial metabolome. What does sum of its parts expression mean? EUROCRYPT 2012. In: Rabin, T. Springer, Heidelberg (2003), Hoffstein, J., Pipher, J., Schanck, J.M., Silverman, J.H., Whyte, W.: Transcript secure signatures based on modular lattices. LNCS, vol. Psychological Gestalt theory would maintain that the whole is something else or something different than the sum of its parts. pp.273 - 291, 10.1007/978-3-319- 7428, pp. We use cookies to help provide and enhance our service and tailor content and ads. In this mode, the signature size is doubled but this longer signature is enough to recover an even longer message – thus the signature is longer but the message does not need to be sent. In: Mosca, M. CRYPTO 2013, Part I. LNCS, vol. J. ACM, Lyubashevsky, V., Peikert, C., Regev, O.: A toolkit for ring-LWE cryptography. The Whole is Greater than the Sum of its Parts May 22, 2012 / 0 Comments / in Strategies Newsletter / by T.E. In: Menezes, A. Crypto (2016), Alkim, E., Ducas, L., Pöppelmann, T., Schwabe, P.: Post-quantum key exchange - a new hope. 1423, pp. But since one of the requirements of an AKE is that it be forward-secure, the public key must change every time. We thank Léo Ducas for very helpful discussions related to lattice reduction algorithms and to [2]. (ed.) Mathematically, the whole is equal to the sum of its parts, neither more nor less. Cryptology ePrint Archive, Report 2012/688 (2012). 40–56. In: 2015 IEEE Symposium on Security and Privacy, SP 2015, San Jose, CA, USA, May 17–21, 2015, pp. Springer, Heidelberg (2015), © Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2016, International Conference on Security and Cryptography for Networks, https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-44618-9_15. SCN 2016 - 10th International Conference Security and Cryptography for Networks , Aug 2016, Amalfi, Italy. 2729, pp. LNCS, vol. A recent announcement by standardization bodies calling for a shift to quantum-resilient crypto has resulted in several AKE proposals from the research community. We show how this technique reduces the communication complexity of the generic construction of our AKE by around \(20\,\%\). Herein lies the problem. Perhaps the idea here is that one + thousand + one = 1002, which of course is bigger than … ASIACRYPT 2014, Part II. sum of its parts phrase. (eds.) Authenticated Key Exchange (AKE) is the backbone of internet security protocols such as TLS and IKE. The whole is sometimes less than the sum of its parts: toward a theory of document acts - Volume 6 Issue 1 Skip to main content Accessibility help We use cookies to distinguish you from other users and to provide you with a better experience on our websites. Energetics of muscle contraction: the whole is less than the sum of its parts. Absence of non-trivial interaction of this kind is a reasonable null hypothesis, under which the association of Now, Chen et al. Our second improvement is showing that certain hash-and-sign lattice signatures can be used in “message-recovery” mode. Supported by the European Horizon 2020 ICT Project SAFEcrypto (H2020/2014–2020 Grant Agreement ICT-644729 – SAFECrypto), the French FUI Project FUI AAP 17 – CRYPTOCOMP, and the SNSF ERC Transfer Grant CRETP2-166734 – FELICITY. 553–570 (2015), Cheon, J.H., Jeong, J., Lee, C.: An algorithm for NTRU problems and cryptanalysis of the GGH multilinear map without an encoding of zero. Not affiliated Here's one cool example: the Mona Lisa (the painting). Ducas, L., Durmus, A., Lepoint, T., Lyubashevsky, V.: Lattice signatures and bimodal Gaussians. In: Gilbert, H. 7237, pp. Springer, Heidelberg (2012), Hoffstein, J., Howgrave-Graham, N., Pipher, J., Silverman, J.H., Whyte, W.: NTRUSIGN: digital signatures using the NTRU lattice. Actually, as parts, nerve cells can't do much of anything. Clearly, the whole is greater than the sum of its parts, because as part of the whole, nerve cells, flower petals, and so on can do things that they can't do alone. Third, the possibility to analyze the interaction between different subsystems of a metabolic network represents a promising avenue of further research in order to gain a better understanding of the intricate structure of metabolism. 7881, pp. The Whole is Less Than the Sum of Its Parts: Constructing More Efficient Lattice-Based AKEs. Springer, Heidelberg (2014), Stehlé, D., Steinfeld, R.: Making NTRU as secure as worst-case problems over ideal lattices. 1–23. In: Boneh, D. IACR Cryptology ePrint Archive (2016). Our new AKE, which now remains secure in case of decryption errors, fails to create a shared key with probability around \(2^{-30}\), but adds enough security that we are able to instantiate a KEM based on the NTRU assumption with rings of smaller dimension. Also translated as “The whole is greater than the part,” this quote is about how much better things are together than as pieces. Cite as. Springer, Heidelberg (2015), Lyubashevsky, V., Wichs, D.: Simple lattice trapdoor sampling from a broad class of distributions. The Whole is Less Than the Sum of Its Parts: Constructing More Efficient Lattice-Based AKEs. 27–47 (2011), Zhang, J., Zhang, Z., Ding, J., Snook, M., Dagdelen, Ö.: Authenticated key exchange from ideal lattices. 147–191. In: Shoup, V. (ed.) have a In: Sarkar, P., Iwata, T. The whole is greater than the sum of its parts. LNCS, vol. Law, L., Menezes, A., Qu, M., Solinas, J.A., Vanstone, S.A.: An efficient protocol for authenticated key agreement. 9057, pp. In: Public-Key Cryptography- PKC, pp. We also thank the committee members for their comments which helped to improve parts of the paper. Lots of great answers here. (ed.) 226–246. 2612, pp. For some reason, many academics are better individually than when they aggregate: The academic whole is less than the sum of its individual parts. Ding, J., Xie, X., Lin, X.: A simple provably secure key exchange scheme based on the learning with errors problem. If you say that something is more than the sum of its parts or greater than the sum of its parts, you mean that it is better than you would expect from the individual parts, because the way they combine adds a different quality. This phrase, a favorite of Dr. Joseph E. Murray, can be interpreted in many ways. This service is more advanced with JavaScript available, SCN 2016: Security and Cryptography for Networks 700–718. Not logged in EUROCRYPT 2010. Springer, Heidelberg (2008), Peikert, C.: An efficient and parallel Gaussian sampler for lattices. ” A phrase attributed to Aristotle and misquoted by those seeking to understand one of the most mysterious properties of a system: Emergence. Definitions by the largest Idiom Dictionary. pp.273 - 291, 10.1007/978-3-319-44618-9_15 . As individual members' solo careers have proved, each band was greater than the sum of its parts. 10-19, Available at SSRN: or Shooting whole-cell extract through a mass spectrometer only tells you the average metabolite content across all of the diverse and highly specialized cellular compartments. Chua Dion H. Goh Show more (ed.) 9056, pp. Talking heads have generated almost more misinformation than I really thought possible. 197–219. LNCS, vol. In: EUROCRYPT, pp. IACR Cryptology ePrint Archive 2015/660 (2015), Gentry, C., Peikert, C., Vaikuntanathan, V.: Trapdoors for hard lattices and new cryptographic constructions. LNCS, vol. In: STOC, pp. The Whole is Less Than the Sum of Its Parts: Constructing More Efficient Lattice-Based AKEs [read my exploration into that topic] The phrase is also used to explain the importance of Synergy and the foundations of Gestalt theory. Paperno and Baroni When the Whole Is Less Than the Sum of Its Parts interaction between the occurrence of words a,b,c. Resource for the Future Discussion Paper No. In: Mosca, M. This is a preview of subscription content, Albrecht, M., Bai, S., Ducas, L.: A subfield lattice attack on overstretched NTRU assumptions: Cryptanalysis of some FHE and graded encoding schemes. LNCS, vol. Springer, Heidelberg (2005). CRYPTO 2003. (eds.) (ed.) Energetics of muscle contraction: the whole is less than the sum of its parts IACR Cryptology ePrint Archive 2015/708 (2015), Hoffstein, J., Pipher, J., Silverman, J.H. In: Joye, M. 192.185.4.68. Our improvement uses particular properties of lattice-based encryption and signature schemes and consists of two parts – the first part increases security, whereas the second reduces communication complexity. © 2020 Springer Nature Switzerland AG. : NTRU: a ring-based public key cryptosystem. Fischer, Carolyn and Preonas, Louis, Combining Policies for Renewable Energy: Is the Whole Less than the Sum of its Parts? (ed.) EUROCRYPT 2015. 2016 Aug 25;166(5):1078-1079. doi: 10.1016/j.cell.2016.08.011. These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This can produce a society in which the whole is less than the sum of the parts. Springer, Heidelberg (2007), Howgrave-Graham, N., Nguyên, P.Q., Pointcheval, D., Proos, J., Silverman, J.H., Singer, A., Whyte, W.: The impact of decryption failures on the security of NTRU encryption. “ The whole is greater than the sum of the parts. Codes Cryptogr. By continuing you agree to the use of cookies. Aristotle needs revision: “The whole is (not always) greater than the sum of its parts.” Aware of this, we still itch to belong — to adhere — because we need to feel as though we are a part of something larger than our pitiable and soulless selves. In: Pointcheval, D., Johansson, T. 546–566. Michaël Van Damme, Managing Partner, The Forge; [email protected] Michaël will be speaking at our Innovation, Business Change & Transformation Conference Europe 19-21 March 2018 as follows: Workshop: The Innovation Game , Conference Session The Key to Innovation is Epibration (eds.) LNCS, vol. The idea is used heavily in Synergy and Gestalt as well as in non-linear fields. When the Whole is Less than the Sum of Its Parts Environmental Ratios of Cadmium and Zinc are less Toxic to Aquatic Insects than Expected Release Date: October 21, 2016 Environmental Ratios of Cadmium and Zinc are less Toxic to Aquatic Insects than Expected LNCS, vol. Author information: (1)Department of Radiology, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98195, U.S.A. kushmeri@u.washington.edu 22–41. 2002 Apr;30(2):227-31. This is advantageous when signing relatively long messages, such as the public keys and ciphertexts generated by a lattice-based KEM. 6110, pp. Sometimes the Whole is Less than the Sum of Its Parts: Toward a Theory of Document Acts January 2014 Language and Cognition 6(1):79-110 … LNCS, vol. If a composite object is stable, that is tantamount to saying it won’t spontaneously decay into its component parts. LNCS, vol. The topic was academic freedom, and the impetus was the sudden “de-hiring” of Steven Salaita at the University of Illinois. 142–159. Because AKE can be generically constructed by combining a digital signature scheme with public key encryption (or a KEM), most of these proposals focused on optimizing the known KEMs and left the authentication part to the generic combination with digital signatures. EUROCRYPT 2013. USENIX (2016), Bernstein, D.J., Chuengsatiansup, C., Lange, T., van Vredendaal, C.: NTRU prime. The intuition is therefore that one can set the parameters of the scheme so as to not care about decryption errors and everything should still remain secure. (eds.) Springer, Heidelberg (2012), Micciancio, D., Regev, O.: Lattice-based cryptography. In: Oswald, E., Fischlin, M. See the table, here: StoryAlity #130 - Why Some Things Are Popular (Velikovsky 2014) (where, it's broken down into (ed.) 789–815. Springer, Heidelberg (2010), Peikert, C.: Lattice cryptography for the internet. We first observe that parameters for lattice-based encryption schemes are always set so as to avoid decryption errors, since many observations by the adversary of such failures usually leads to him recovering the secret key. EUROCRYPT 2015. When viewing a situation or a problem or challenge, it's always good to firstly step back by taking a helicopter view or a gestalt perspective of it. 8874, pp. 197–206 (2008), Güneysu, T., Lyubashevsky, V., Pöppelmann, T.: Practical lattice-based cryptography: a signature scheme for embedded systems. (eds.) CRYPTO 2005. In: Oswald, E., Fischlin, M. LNCS, vol. Kushmerick MJ(1), Conley KE. LNCS, vol. CT-RSA 2003. it does not depend on the structure of the message), and so it may be used in AKE constructions that use a different KEM, or even simply as a way to reduce the transmission length of a message and its digital signature. (March 12, 2010). 738–755. LNCS, vol. But energy doesn’t spon… “The whole is greater than the sum of its parts.” (Aristotle) I first read this quote in Wendelin Van Draanen's Young Adult fiction, "Flipped" when I was in elementary school. CRYPTO 2007. 80–97. PQCrypto 2014. Springer, Heidelberg (2003), Krawczyk, H.: HMQV: a high-performance secure Diffie-Hellman protocol. When we pour our efforts into endeavors which make each other greater, offering our talents to benefit others, and produce things, ideas, and In the language of physics: You need to do some work, invest some energyto pry the constituents apart against the forces that keep them together. (ed.) ANTS 1998. Using a lattice-based signature in message-recovery mode is quite generic (i.e. Des. 3621, pp. In: Canetti, R., Garay, J.A. (eds.) CHES 2012. 35–54. 150–169. The Whole (Cell) Is Less Than the Sum of Its Parts Cell. My whole: spoken the second it starts, Comes sooner, and is less, than the sum of its parts. Chapter in Post-quantum Cryptography, pp. 7237, pp. IACR Cryptology ePrint Archive 2016/461 (2016), Bos, J.W., Costello, C., Naehrig, M., Stebila, D.: Post-quantum key exchange for the TLS protocol from the ring learning with errors problem. Springer, Heidelberg (2013), Lyubashevsky, V., Prest, T.: Quadratic time, linear space algorithms for Gram-Schmidt orthogonalization and Gaussian sampling in structured lattices. 8042, pp. In: Johansson, T., Nguyen, P.Q. The rod-and-frame effect: The whole is less than the sum of its parts Perception, 2005, volume 34, pages 699^716 Wenxun Li, Leonard Matin Clarence H Graham Memorial Laboratory of Visual Science, Department of Psychology, Definition of sum of its parts in the Idioms Dictionary. The Whole (Cell) Is Less Than the Sum of Its Parts, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cell.2016.08.011. A recent academic symposium tells the story well. PQCrypto 2014. Springer, Heidelberg (2012), Lyubashevsky, V., Peikert, C., Regev, O.: On ideal lattices and learning with errors over rings. The Whole (Cell) Is Less Than the Sum of Its Parts Despite advances in metabolite profiling, a full picture of the metabolic landscape of the cell has been limited by sub-cellular compartmentalization, which segregates distinct nutrient pools into membrane-bound organelles. Part of Springer Nature. And a lot of people believed them, which isn't hard to understand, because if you don't have access to--or don't understand--the actual to . In this paper, we show that by simultaneously considering the secrecy and authenticity requirements of an AKE, we can construct a scheme that is more secure and with smaller communication complexity than a scheme created by a generic combination of a KEM with a signature scheme. In: Buhler, J.P. (eds.) EUROCRYPT 2012. ScienceDirect ® is a registered trademark of Elsevier B.V. ScienceDirect ® is a registered trademark of Elsevier B.V. In: Bernstein, D.J., Buchmann, J., Dahmen, E. CRYPTO 2010. Over 10 million scientific documents at your fingertips. Despite advances in metabolite profiling, a full picture of the metabolic landscape of the cell has been limited by sub-cellular compartmentalization, which segregates distinct nutrient pools into membrane-bound organelles. Fortunately, Chen et al. It is also used by people looking for something somewhat cryptic to say to sound smart. (ed.) LNCS, vol. 4622, pp. (eds.) 122–140. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves. For instance, the nucleus of a helium atom does not spontaneously split into the two protons and two neutronsthat are its constituents: On the contrary, splitting a stable object into its constituents takes some effort. Why the whole is less than the sum of its parts: Examining knowledge management in acquisitions Author links open overlay panel Alton Y.K. Collaborators: Kushmerick MJ(1). LNCS, vol. Copyright © 2020 Elsevier B.V. or its licensors or contributors. The full version of this work appears as an eprint Report 2016/435. 267–288. Springer, Heidelberg (2014), Ducas, L., Prest, T.: A hybrid Gaussian sampler for lattices over rings. 6223, pp. This example shows that the set of pathways in the whole metabolic network is smaller than the “sum” of the pathway sets on the local scale. 8772, pp. Springer, Heidelberg (2010), Lyubashevsky, V., Peikert, C., Regev, O.: On ideal lattices, learning with errors over rings. Springer, Heidelberg (2014), Hoffstein, J., Pipher, J., Schanck, J.M., Silverman, J.H., Whyte, W., Zhang, Z.: Choosing parameters for ntruencrypt. We show that this naive solution is not quite correct, but the intuition can be made to work by a small change in the scheme. SCN 2016 - 10th International Conference Security and Cryptography for Networks, Aug 2016, Amalfi, Italy. 8772, pp. In: Prouff, E., Schaumont, P. (eds.) Biochem Soc Trans. 1. pp 273-291 | Springer, Heidelberg (2013), Ducas, L., Lyubashevsky, V., Prest, T.: Efficient identity-based encryption over NTRU lattices. IACR Cryptology ePrint Archive 2016/504 (2016), Lyubashevsky, V.: Lattice signatures without trapdoors. 716–730 (2015), Micciancio, D., Peikert, C.: Trapdoors for lattices: simpler, tighter, faster, smaller. LNCS, vol. 530–547. 719–751.