http://www.eppo.int/QUARANTINE/Alert_List/insects/drosophila_suzukii.htm, EPPO, 2013. IPPC Official Pest Report., Rome, Italy: FAO. 44 (3), 72-76. http://www.knpv.org/db/upload/documents/Gewasbescherming/2013gb44nr3.pdf, IPPC, 2010. Journal of Economic Entomology. PloS One, 7(4), Kai H, Zhang WX, Carson HL, 1993. Drosophila suzukii (Matsumura), a new invasive species harmful to crops with small fruits. Genome-scale relaxed clock analyses indicate a late Miocene origin of D. suzukii, concomitant with paleo-geological and climatic conditions that suggest an adaptation to temperate climates. Drosophila suzukii. Spotted-wing drosophila, Drosophila suzukii (Matsumura) (Diptera: Drosophilidae) is a pest of small fruits and cherries. First occurrence of Drosophila suzukii in the Sauternes vineyards. Pupal parasitoids seem less susceptible to the high hemocyte levels of D. suzukii and they appear to have the highest potential for use in biocontrol of D. suzukii (Kacsoh and Schlenke, 2012). http://www.daff.gov.au/__data/.../Final-PRA-report-Drosophila-suzukii.pdf? A supertree analysis and literature review of the genus Drosophila and closely related genera (Diptera, Drosophilidae). In: Spixiana, 15 93-95. In the past 10 years, the invasive fruit fly known as the spotted-wing drosophila (Drosophila suzukii) has caused millions of dollars of damage to berry and other fruit crops. Drosophila suzukii has subsequently been confirmed as present in Canada (British Columbia) (NAPPO 2010a) and the USA (California, Florida, Oregon and Washington) (NAPPO 2010b) … Host status and fruit odor response of Drosophila suzukii (Diptera: Drosophilidae) to figs and mulberries. Proceedings of the Zoological Society of Calcutta, 40:19-26, Siozios S, Cestaro A, Kaur R, Pertot I, Rota-Stabelli O, Anfora G, 2013. Laboratory and field compaqrison of insecticides to reduce infestation of Drosophila suzukii in berry crops. Annual Report of the Kanto-Tosan Plant Protection Society, No.52:99-101, Kehrli P, Hohn H, Baroffio C, Fischer S, 2012. Survey of host plants and natural enemies of Drosophila suzukii in an area of strawberry production in Catalonia (northeast Spain). Netting must be secured at the ground and two layers of netting should be applied at the entrance of the tunnel (Grassi and Maistri, 2013). HUN-01/1. Photo: M. Hauser, CDFA 2009 The spotted wing Drosophila (SWD), Drosophila suzukii Gewasbescherming. ], No.1001:147-152. http://www.actahort.org/books/1001/1001_15.htm, Kopp A, True JR, 2002. New pests of the small fruits in Trentino. (2012). 179-186. 4-5. SAD, Revija za Sadjarstvo, Vinogradnistvo in Vinarstvo, 22(3):3-, Sidorenko VS, 1992. The vinegar flyDrosophila suzukii(Matsumura) (Diptera Drosophilidae), spotted wing drosophila, is a highly polyphagous inva- sive pest endemic to South East Asia, which has recently invaded western countries. In 1980 it was collected in Hawaii without any report of it causing economic damage. 87 (3), 379-383. http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs10340-014-0591-5 DOI:10.1007/s10340-014-0591-5, Diepenbrock L M, McPhie D R, 2018. Sexual dimorphism is evident: males display a dark spot on the leading top edge of each wing and females are larger than males and possess a large serrated ovipositor. Drosophila suzukii is an invasive fruit fly in The Netherlands, that is increasingly common in Europe and can cause major damage in fruit production. Herein, we report the first records of D. Fruits (Paris), 70(4):225-230. http://www.fruits-journal.org/articles/fruits/abs/2015/04/fruits150016-s/fruits150016-s.html, Basoalto E, Hilton R, Knight A, 2013. Insects and Mites. Spotted Wing Drosophila, Drosophila suzukii (Matsurmura) (Diptera: Drosophilidae), a fruit pest new to North America Gary J. Steck, Gary.Steck@FreshFromFlorida.com, Taxonomic Entomologist, Florida Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services, Division of Plant Industry Wayne Dixon, … 3 (4), B1-B5. Proceedings of the Entomological Society of Washington, 120(2), 255-259. doi: 10.4289/0013-8797.120.2.255, Dubuffet A, Colinet D, Anselme C, Dupas S, Carton Y, Poirié M, 2009. Biology and management of spotted wing drosophila, Drosophila suzukii (Matsumura) in small fruits in the Pacific Northwest. (Presenza di Drosophila suzukii su uve in fruttai nel Veronese.) The spotted wing drosophila (SWD) is a fruit fly orginally from Asia, was found in Hawaii in the 1980s, in California in 2008, in Michigan in 2010 and in Maine in 2012. Data source for updated system data added to species habitat list. Paris, France. New and interesting records of Drosophilidae (Diptera) from the Czech Republic and Slovakia. suzukii becomes mobile above 5°C, and if the average temperature rises beyond 10°C it starts to become active. Crop losses of 20-40% were reported from both Washington and Oregon states’ 2009 late season blueberries and caneberries (Gardeman and Tanigoshi, 2011). Substrate vibrations during courtship in three Drosophila species. Proceedings of the Entomological Society of Washington. Preliminary laboratory studies with O. insidiosus (Walsh et al., 2011), O. laevigatus and O. maiusculus (V. Malagnini, personal comm.) Recognizing Fruit Damaged by Spotted Wing Drosophila (SWD), Drosophila suzukii. In: IPPC Official Pest Report, No. Cherry Drosophila, a new pest in our fruit crops. Later, it was confirmed present in Europe where it was also attacking a range of fresh fruits. D. suzukii is predisposed towards infesting and developing in undamaged, ripening fruit. Traps baited with different baits have been proposed for detecting adults in the field. Drosophila (Sophophora) suzukii (Matsumura), Highly likely to be transported internationally accidentally, Difficult to identify/detect as a commodity contaminant, Difficult to identify/detect in the field. Wu SuRan, Tai HongKun, Li ZhengYue, Wang Xu, Yang ShiSheng, Sun Wen, Xiao Chun, 2007. Seljak G, 2011. EPPO Reporting Service. indicus (Parshad and Paika, 1965). 164-166. A more recently updated description, including references for additional morphological details, is given by Hauser (2011), and another by Vlach (2010), who published a dichotomous key for easy identification. Environmental Entomology, 42(5):1052-1060, Chabert S, Allemand R, Poyet M, Eslin P, Gibert P, 2012. Larvae are often undetected inside the fruit. There are differe… Sasaki M, Sato R, 1995. Proceedings of the Hawaiian Entomological Society, 24:179, Kang YS, Moon KW, 1968. Spotted Wing Drosophila, Drosophila suzukii (Matsumura) a new fruit pest of concern especially for strawberry, blackberry and blueberry growers. No differences have been observed in thermal tolerance between cool and warm temperate strains of D. suzukii. Current control efforts for D. suzukii rely heavily on the use of insecticides. Wounding through egg-laying, larval feeding inside the pulp and secondary microbial infections can lead to a total loss of the harvest. 40 (2), 290-293. http://journals.tubitak.gov.tr/zoology/issues/zoo-16-40-2/zoo-40-2-20-1412-25.pdf. EPPO (online). It attacks a range of soft skinned fruit and reduces crop yield and quality through direct feeding damage and secondary infection of … London, UK: Academic Press, 147-188, EPPO, 2011. 149 (4), 8-12. http://www.szow.ch, Kenis M, Tonina L, Eschen R, Sluis B van der, Sancassani M, Mori N, Haye T, Helsen H, 2016. IFAS Extension. 67 (11), 1352-1357. http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/ps.2265/full DOI:10.1002/ps.2265, Helsen H, Bruchem J van, Potting R, 2013. Mortality of flies exposed to cyazypyr was relatively low after 16 hours but caused intermediate mortality after 40 hours. Some work has been conducted on the normal temperature ranges at which D. suzukii can develop and reproduce (Tochen et al., 2014). Although considered native to East Asia, it is possible that D. suzukii is not native to Japan but was introduced into the country at the turn of the century. Drosophila suzukii. In 2010 D. suzukii was detected in six other states in the USA (Utah, North Carolina, South Carolina, Wisconsin, Michigan and Mississippi). Distribution Maps of Plant Pests. Map 766 (1st revisio. Pest Management Science, 67:1386-1395, Bellamy DE, Sisterson MS, Walse SS, 2013. A polyphagous pest, it infests a wide range of fruit crops, included grape, as well as an increasing number of wild fruits. Iriomote-jima Islands (DAFF, 2013), The central northern regions and the highlands, Aguascalientes, Baja California, Colima, Guanajuato, Jalisco, Michoacán, Estado de México and Veracruz, Protected agriculture (e.g. Journal of Applied Entomology, 136(1/2):148-154, Lasa R, Tadeo E, 2015. Ontario, Canada: Ministry of Agriculture and Food. IPPC Official Pest Report, No. It has also been recorded in Réunion (EPPO, 2018). Journal of Pest Science. Photo by Hannah Burrack, North Carolina State University, Bugwood.org. The susceptibility of small fruits and cherries to the spotted-wing drosophila, Drosophila suzukii. The minimum, optimal and maximum intrinsic rate of natural increase was estimated at 13.4, 21.0 and 29.4°C by Tochen et al. Malathion, bifenthrin and spinetoram also provided high mortality levels when D. suzukii adults were exposed to one-day field aged residue (Bruck et al., 2011; Beers et al., 2011). Laboratory survival of Drosophila suzukii under simulated winter conditions of the Pacific Northwest and seasonal field trapping in five primary regions of small and stone fruit production in the United States. On some species of Drosophila from China. 50 (1), 197-200. D. suzukii overwinter as adults (Dalton et al., 2011). Makunagi, 8:1-8, OMAFRA, 2013. Peng F T, 1937. Spotted wing drosophila, Drosophila suzukii, a fruit pest in the United States. Trap designs for monitoring Drosophila suzukii (Diptera: Drosophilidae). Glasilo Biljne Zaštite. Wounding through egg-laying, larval feeding inside the pulp and secondary microbial infections can lead to a total … D. suzukii belongs to the melanogaster species group of the subgenus Sophophora. Drosophila suzukii (Matsumura) (Diptera: Drosophilidae), a new pest of stone fruits in western North America. http://www.oregon.gov/ODA/PLANT/docs/pdf/ippm_d_suzukii_id_guide10.pdf, Vilela CR, Mori L, 2014. Oriental Insects. Dros. https://www.ippc.int/. Acta Musei Silesiae, Scientiae Naturales, 64(2):101-106. http://www.degruyter.com/view/j/cszma, Maier CT, 2012. ], No.985:249-254, Wu SuRan, Tai HongKun, Li ZhengYue, Wang Xu, Yang ShiSheng, Sun Wen, Xiao Chun, 2007. EPPO Reporting Service. Southwestern Entomologist. Phytosanitary Alert System: First report of Drosophila suzukii in Canada. Genome of Drosophila suzukii, the Spotted Wing Drosophila. Spotted wing drosophila - Drosophila suzukii (Matsumura). The antennae are short and stubby with branched arista. The infested fruit begins to collapse around the feeding site causing a depression or visible blemish on the fruit. Annals of the Entomological Society of America, 108(2):117-129. http://www.bioone.org/doi/abs/10.1093/aesa/sau014, Lee JC, Shearer PW, Barrantes LD, Beers EH, Burrack HJ, Dalton DT, Dreves AJ, Gut LJ, Hamby KA, Haviland DR, Isaacs R, Nielsen AL, Richardson T, Rodriguez-Saona CR, Stanley CA, Walsh DB, Walton VM, Yee WL, Zalom FG, Denny Bruck JDJ, 2013. Drosophila suzukii, or spotted wing Drosophila, recorded in Southeastern Pennsylvania, U.S.A. Entomological News. Drosophila suzukii (Diptera: Drosophilidae): Invasive pest of ripening soft fruit expanding its geographic range and damage potential. (Presenza di Drosophila suzukii su uve in fruttai nel Veronese.). A historic account of the invasion of Drosophila suzukii (Matsumura) (Diptera: Drosophilidae) in the continental United States, with remarks on their identification. Rome, Italy: FAO, IPPC, 2012. Proceedings of the Entomological Society of Washington. Distribution of the spotted-wing drosophila (Drosophila suzukii) in the north-eastern part of the Carpathian lowlands. http://westernfarmpress.com/management/invasive-fruit-fly-spans-california-maine, Valch J, 2010. Host Range. The potential economic impact of Drosophila suzukii on small fruits production in Trentino (Italy). Drosophila suzukii attacking commercial fruit in Western USA were confirmed by an Oregon Department of Agriculture pest alert (ODA 2009). There are differences in fruit susceptibility within species and among varieties within the same fruit species (Lee et al., 2011). Consequently there are neither official limits on the movement of host crops from infested areas, nor coordinated actions for monitoring its presence in new areas. First findings of Drosophila suzukii. Research into the Fruit-fly Drosophila suzukii Matsumura (Preliminary Report). First record of Drosophila suzukii in Quebec vineyards. D. suzukii seems to have important relationships with forests and woodland, where it can find a suitable microclimate and host plants year-round (Grassi et al, 2011). Journal of Economic Entomology, 106(4):1932-1937, Andreazza F, Haddi K, Oliveira E E, Ferreira J A M, 2016. Apple cider vinegar was one of the first baits used because it was effective and practical to use (EPPO, 2013a). Laboratory bioassays found that flies were attracted to dark colours, ranging from red to black, and that the use of three alternating red, black and red coloured strips significantly increased the number of flies caught (Basoalto et al., 2013). Tolfenpyrad had relatively good activity by topical exposure, but residual activity has yet to be determined. In this study, population dynamics of D. suzukii and its associated parasitoids were investigated. For more information on traps and baits, see the Monitoring and Surveillance section in Prevention and Control. ©Dr Gevork Arakelian/Dept. However, the active ingredients are not very persistent. Olfaction and gustation play a critical role during insect niche formation, and these senses are largely mediated by two important receptor families: olfactory and gustatory receptors (Ors and Grs). Originating in China, D. suzukii was first described in 1931 in Japan and first appeared in Europe in 2009 in northern Italy (Trentino Alto Adige). A detailed historic account of the dispersion of D. suzukii outside of its native area is given in Hauser (2011). IOBC/WPRS Bulletin. Grassi A, Pallaoro M, 2012. (A pettyesszárnyú muslica (Drosophila suzukii) első magyarországi előfordulása.). Fruits become susceptible to D. suzukii as they start to change colour, which coincides with softening skins and higher sugar levels (Burrack et al., 2013). (La drosophile du cerisier, un nouveau ravageur dans nos cultures fruitieres). Journal of Chemical Ecology, 38(11):1419-1431, Cha DH, Adams T, Werle CT, Sampson BJ, Adamczyk Jr JJ, Rogg H, Landolt PJ, 2013. IPPC, 2013. Larvae emerge milky white with visible internal organs and blac… https://www.fdacs.gov/content/download/66350/file/pest_alert_-_spotted_wing_drosophila_-_drosophila_suzukii.pdf, Thistlewood H, Shearer P W, Steenwyk B van, Walton V, Acheampong S, 2012. The costs of establishing blueberries in the Willamette Valley. Kanzawa T, 1939. (Drosophila suzukii: valutazione di agrofarmaci e analisi sul corretto posizionamento in campo.) NPPO., The Netherlands: National Plant Protection Organization. Acclimated adult D. suzukii can survive for up to 88 days at a constant 10°C, with no marked change in mortality when flies are subjected to a 7-day freeze period. Florida, USA: University of Florida, 1-6, Mazzoni V, Anfora G, Virant-Doberlet M, 2013. nucipersica (nectarine), Solanum dulcamara (bittersweet nightshade), Vaccinium angustifolium (Lowbush blueberry), Debris and waste associated with human activities, http://www.agf.gov.bc.ca/cropprot/swd.htm, http://groups.hort.oregonstate.edu/system/files/Spotted_Wing_booklet-11-2.pdf, http://www.ipm.ucdavis.edu/EXOTIC/drosophila.html, http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/ps.3568/pdf, http://archives.eppo.org/EPPOReporting/Reporting_Archives.htm, http://www.eppo.int/QUARANTINE/Alert_List/insects/drosophila_suzukii.htm, http://www.eppo.int/DATABASES/pqr/pqr.htm, Kenis M, Tonina L, Eschen R, Sluis Bvan der, Sancassani M, Mori N, Haye T, Helsen H, 2016. 0.5 – 1 mm diameter holes should be drilled in the side in order to enable the flies to enter. Applied and Environmental Microbiology, 78(14):4869-4873. http://aem.asm.org/content/78/14/4869.full, Hamby KA, Kwok RS, Zalom FG, Chiu JC, 2013. Oviposition scars and larval feeding depressions in cherry. PQR database. Insects of the protected areas of the town of San Giuliano Terme (Insetti delle aree protette del comune di San Giuliano Terme). DOI:10.1007/s10340-016-0810-3, Lengyel G D, Orosz S, Kiss B, Lupták R, Kárpáti Z, 2015. Drosophila suzukii, Spotted Wing Drosophila, is a highly polyphagous invasive pest endemic to South East Asia, which has recently invaded western countries. Weinsberg, Germany: Fördergemeinschaft Ökologischer Obstbau e.V. Canberra, Australia: Department of Agriculture, Fisheries and Forestry Biosecurity. 8th International Conference on Integrated Fruit Production, Kusadasi, Turkey, 7-12 October 2012. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution, 62(1):214-223, Yu D, Zalom FG, Hamby KA, 2013. Genome scale data may help explore the relationship between D. suzukii and D. subpulchrella. Since its detection in 2008 in California [ 1 ] and Spain [ 2 ], it has become established in North America and in many European countries. Organic crop production is seriously threatened by D. suzukii as only a few natural insecticides are allowed. The pupal ectoparassitoid P. vindemiae has also been found in association with D. suzukii in orchards and vineyards, both in USA and in Europe (Brown et al., 2011; Rossi Stacconi et al. (Plodova vinska mušica - Drosophila suzukii (Matsumura).). http://esa.publisher.ingentaconnect.com/content/esa/jipm/2012/00000003/00000004/art00001 DOI:10.1603/IPM12012. Annot. Moreover, the efficacy of the current available insecticides against D. suzukii larvae within fruits is limited, and D. suzukii control is focused on treatments based on chemicals targeting adults (Cini et al., 2012). EPPO Global Database. The activity of microorganisms, as well as the intimate association of the pest species with endosymbionts, has not yet been exploited for biocontrol purpose. > 0°C, dry summers, Cw - Warm temperate climate with dry winter, Warm temperate climate with dry winter (Warm average temp. Informatore Agrario. In this project we are focusing on finding natural enemies (parasitoids) of the pest to introduce into Europe. Genome Biology and Evolution, 5(4):745-757, Ostojic I, Zovko M, Petrovic D, 2014. Sidorenko VS, 1992. Italy: FEM Fondazione Edmund Mach, Via E.Mach, 38010, San Michele all’Adige - Trento,, http://www.fmach.it/, USA: OSU Oregon State University, 4017 Agriculture and Life Sciences Building, Corvallis, OR 97331-7304, http://spottedwing.org/, Claudio Ioriatti, Center for Technology Transfer, Italy; Marco Stacconi, Fondazione Edmund Mach, Italy; Gianfranco Anfor, Fondazione Edmund Mach, Italy. http://westernfarmpress.com/management/invasive-fruit-fly-spans-california-maine, Vilela C R, Mori L, 2014. (Susceptibilidad de Drosophila suzukii Matsumura (Diptera: Drosophilidae) a hongos entomopatógenos.) Hauser M, 2011. It was first detected in strawberries and raspberries in California in 2008 (Hauser 2011), and in the same year it was found in Spain (Calabria et al. Florida Entomologist. Biology and management of spotted wing drosophila on small and stone fruits: year 1 reporting cycle. By 2010-2011, the range of D. suzukii enlarged further, including other regions in Italy and France (Cini et al, 2012; Weydert et al, 2012) as well as expanding north and east, invading Switzerland (Baroffio and Fisher, 2011), Slovenjia (Seljiak, 2011), Croatia (Milek et al., 2011), Austria (Lethmayer, 2011), Germany (Vogt et al., 2012), Belgium (Mortelmans et al., 2012), the Netherlands (NPPO, 2012), the UK (EPPO, 2012) and Hungary (Kiss et al, 2013). PLoSONE, 8:e80708, Milek TM, Seljak G, Simala M, Bjelis M, 2011. The wing spots of D. subpulchrella are particularly similar in shape and position to those of D. suzukii. J. Zool. (Drosophila suzukii su piccoli frutti e ciliegio.) Giv… 123 (1), 71-75. http://www.bioone.org/loi/entn DOI:10.3157/021.123.0116, Grassi A, Giongo L, Palmieri L, 2011. The life cycle from egg hatching to adult emergence ranges from about 9-10 days to 21-25 days at 25°C and 15°C, respectively (Kanzawa, 1939). Souza G K, Pikart T G, Oliveira V L de, Boff P, Boff M I C, 2017. The crucial role of specific substrate-borne vibrations during courtship in D. suzukii was demonstrated by Mazzoni et al. Trapping spotted wing drosophila, Drosophila suzukii (Matsumura) (Diptera: Drosophilidae), with combinations of vinegar and wine, and acetic acid and ethanol. IOBC/WPRS Bulletin [Proceedings of the IOBC/WPRS Working Group "Integrated Plant Protection in Fruit Crops, Subgroup Soft Fruits", Budapest, Hungary, 20-23 September 2010. Journal of Pest Science, 87(3):379-383. http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs10340-014-0591-5, Diepenbrock, L. M., McPhie, D. R., 2018. Journal of Yunnan Agricultural University. First record of spotted wing Drosophila suzukii (Matsumura, 1931) in Bosnia and Herzegovina. Biosecurity Australia, 2010. Pest Alert: Spotted Wing Drosophila Drosophila suzukii Introduction Damaged peach due to SWD. First report of Drosophila suzukii. DOI:10.1016/j.aasci.2018.05.006. Serv, 98 59-60. D. suzukii has recently been recorded in Iran, indicating expansion of its territory into the Middle East (Parchami-Araghi et al., 2015). Parchami-Araghi Mehrdad, Ebrahim Gilasian, Ali Akbar Kayhanian, 2015. Red, yellow and black traps were preferable over clear or white, but there was an interaction between the trap colour and the crop type. In: Ecofruit. Fruit falls victim to a newly-arrived pest: Drosophila suzukii. D. suzukii rapidly spread into other 15 states in USA in 2011, an additional nine States in 2012 and a further two in 2013. Calabria et al. http://uspest.org/risk/models?spp_swd. Pest population, bordering crops, level of control required, etc. https://www.ippc.int/en/. May 2, 2012. The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. Low levels of reproduction or no reproduction were found at temperatures above 30°C (Tochen et al., 2014). Key to Identifying spotted-wing drosophila, Drosophila suzukii (PDF) Susceptibility of small fruit and cherries to SWD (PDF) PUBLICATION. Cherry fruit fly, new in Switzerland. Physiological Entomology, 38(1):45-53. http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/phen.12002/full, Price JF, Nagle C, 2009. Lethmayer C, 2011. Innovation establishes method to control invasive fly that deposits eggs in fruit crops, causing millions in damage In the past 10 years, the invasive fruit fly known as the spotted-wing drosophila (Drosophila suzukii) has caused millions of dollars of damage to berry and other fruit crops. Nils Hiebert, Tessa Carrau, Merle Bartling, Andreas Vilcinskas, Kwang-Zin Lee, Identification of entomopathogenic bacteria associated with the invasive pest Drosophila suzukii in infested areas of Germany, Journal of Invertebrate Pathology, 10.1016/j.jip.2020.107389, (107389), (2020). Credit: Michelle Bui, UC San Diego Journal International des Sciences de la Vigne et du Vin. glasshouse production), Managed forests, plantations and orchards, Average temp. Drosophila (Sophophora) suzukii (Matsumura). Crop Protection, 54. Growers in small fruit production regions in coastal Pacific Northwest, USA, currently apply pesticides from 5-7 times per season on average (J Flake, pers comm.). Okada T, 1976. 65 (3), 99-101. http://www.izbis.com/casopis.html. The oviposition scar exposes the fruit to secondary attack by pathogens and other insects, which may cause rotting (Hauser et al., 2009; Walton et al., 2010). Insect Systematics & Evolution, 39(3):241-267, Linde KVan Der, Houle D, Spicer GS, Steppan SJ, 2010. First field records of Pachycrepoideus vindemiae as a parasitoid of Drosophila suzukii in European and Oregon small fruit production areas. Rome, Italy: FAO, IPPC, 2013. SWD is a small fly (2 to 3 mm) with bright red eyes, a pale brown thorax, and an abdomen with black horizontal stripes. Nontarget insect attraction to methyl eugenol traps used in male annihilation of the oriental fruit fly (Diptera: Tephritidae) in riparian Hawaiian stream habitat. A small drop of dish soap added to the liquid bait as a surfactant, or the placement of a sticky card within the trap, results in more fly captures. Drosophilidae of Kashmir, India. D. suzukii adults are 2-3 mm long with red eyes, a pale brown or yellowish brown thorax and black transverse stripes on the abdomen. While parasitization by L. heterotoma induced a decrease in the number of circulating haemocytes in D. melanogaster, it led to a large increase in the total haemocyte counts of D. suzukii (Poyet et al., 2013). A polyphagous pest, it infests a wide range of fruit crops, included grape, as well as an increasing number of wild fruits. D. suzukii gathers on fruit that have dropped onto the ground and are spoiled or fermented. A preliminary report on Drosophila fauna of Islamabad (Capital, Pakistan). Pest Management Science, 69(10):1173-1180. http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/ps.3489/full, Burrack HJ, Smith JP, Pfeiffer DG, Koeher G, Laforest J, 2012. (2010) reported that D. suzukii individuals collected in autumn were reproductively immature, suggesting a winter reproductive diapause. 2011, Atallah et al. Florida Entomologist, 98(3):987-988. http://www.bioone.org/loi/flen, Lee JC, Bruck DJ, Curry H, Edwards D, Haviland DR, Steenwyk RAvan, Yorgey BM, 2011. including Drosophila melanogaster. Revista Brasileira de Entomologia, 58(4):371-375. They grow throughout three larval stages and when fully grown can reach 5.5 mm long and 0.8 mm wide. Drosophila suzukii. http://www.agf.gov.bc.ca/cropprot/swd.htm, Beers EH, Steenwyk RAVan, Shearer PW, Coates WW, Grant JA, 2011. Spotted-wing drosophila (SWD; Drosophila suzukii; Family: Drosophilidae) is a key pest that targets a wide variety of susceptible fruits including tree stone fruits (e.g., cherries) and berries (e.g., strawberries, blueberries, raspberries and blackberries). In: The Alachua Grower, Radonjić S, Hrnčić S, 2015. D. subpulchrella Takamori and Watabe males’ black spots are very similar in shape and position to those of D. suzukii (Takamori et al., 2006). As part of this role, Australia has responded to the incursion of a new pest, spotted-wing drosophila (Drosophila suzukii), in North America where it was confirmed attacking a range of fresh fruits in 2009. Final pest risk analysis report for Drosophila suzukii. Unlike most other vinegar flies that require damaged fruit to attack, SWD causes damage when the female flies cut a slit and lay eggs in healthy fruit. Terra Trentina, 55(10):19-23, Gueguen G, Rajwani R, Paddibhatla I, Morales J, Govind S, 2011. A variety of trap prototypes made by researchers and commercial traps are available to monitor adult D. suzukii. Approx. Contact ncipmmedia@gmail.com for free printed copies. Adults often feed on fruits that has been split or damaged by birds. The fly called spotted wing drosophila (SWD, Drosophila suzukii) is emerging as a global plant pest of significance. On the basis of the shape and length of the ovipositor, D. suzukii can be easily discriminated from related species, such as D. biarmipes, but not easily from other species such as D. immigrans Sturtevant and D. subpulchrella (Takamori et al., 2006), which possess very similar ovipositors (Hauser, 2011). The species was later described in 1931 by Dr Shounen Matsumura as Drosophila suzukii Matsumura, and he gave it the common name of cherry drosophila (Kanzawa, 1935). In June, 1916, maggots were found to be infesting pre-harvest cherries (Prunus avium) in Yamacho, Higashi Yamanashi County, Yamanashi Prefecture, Japan (Kanzawa, 1935). The species is endemic in Asia. D. suzukii produces up to five times more hemocytes than D. melanogaster, making it significantly more resistant to wasp parasitism (Kacsoh and Schlenke, 2012) and making it less likely for indigenous specialized parasitoids to shift host onto it. Ecological, morphological and molecular studies on Ganaspis individuals (Hymenoptera: Figitidae) attacking Drosophila suzukii (Diptera: Drosophilidae). Host susceptibility of 'French Prune' Prunus domestica to Drosophila suzukii (Diptera: Drosophilidae). Later, it was confirmed present in Europe where it was also attacking a range of fresh fruits. This lure has been lately improved by adding wine (Landolt et al., 2012 ) and wine and sugar (Grassi and Maistri, 2013). Quarterly Journal of the Taiwan Museum, 30(3/4):345-372, Linde Kvan der, Houle D, 2008. 150-156. https://www.iobc-wprs.org/members/shop_en.cfm?mod_Shop_detail_produkte=169, Mendonca L de P, Oliveira E E, Andreazza F, Rezende S M, Faroni L R D, Guedes R N C, Haddi K, 2019. In 2008 economic losses (based on maximum reported yield losses) for California, Oregon and Washington were estimated at 40% for blueberries, 50% for caneberries, 33% for cherries and 20% for strawberries. D. suzukii may also be introduced to new areas via the transport of flowers, although this is less likely. Chemical control programs for Drosophila suzukii that comply with international limitations on pesticide residues for exported sweet cherries.
2020 drosophila suzukii pest