The first thing to be aware of, when you write a lab report discussions is the Writing the Discussion The discussion section is a framing section, like the Introduction, which returns to the significance argument set up in your introduction. Avoid repeating information, unless the information is expanded to provide additional insight. Write up the case emphasising the interesting points of the presentation, investigations leading to diagnosis, and management of the disease/pathology. Fourteen Steps to Writing to Writing an Effective Discussion Section. Find the information. How to write the final elements of a discussion section Most discussions will end with two elements. University of Florida; Yellin, Linda L. A Sociology Writer's Guide. Here you have to write about your ideas after the experiment was conducted and inform your readers about your thoughts that are based on the results of the experiment. In the longer version of a report, where there are multiple findings, the discussion is typically included within the results section itself, and a separate conclusion section is provided to summarize the findings. The discussion should indicate whether \the results met the objectives and include the reasons for it. Writing in Psychology course syllabus. It is far better for you to identify and acknowledge your study’s limitations than to have them pointed out by your professor! For example, if you studied the impact of foreign aid on increasing levels of education among the poor in Bangladesh, it's generally not appropriate to speculate about how your findings might apply to populations in other countries without drawing from existing studies to support your claim. It is for this reason that we will look at some oral discussion activities, before examining how to approach the writing of discussion pieces in the classroom. American Psychological Association gradPSYCH Magazine (January 2006). Respiratory Care 49 (October 2004); Kretchmer, Paul. Begin this part of the section by repeating what you consider to be your most important finding first. This is especially important when describing the discovery of significant or unanticipated findings. A key objective of the discussion section is to synthesize the results by providing a logical explanation. Interpretation is a subjective exercise. Abstract - Write the abstract LAST. In the shorter version of a lab report, the discussion section is typically separated from the results section and serves as a conclusion as well. Therefore, be careful that you do not read more into the findings than can be supported by the evidence you've gathered. It is far better for you to identify and acknowledge your study’s limitations than to have them pointed out by your professor! Discussion or Conclusion Once you've discussed the most important findings of your study in the Results section, you will use the Discussion section to interpret those findings and talk about why they are important (some instructors call this the Conclusion section). The discussion should cover all of the objectives specified in the report in depth. The report should link back to the existing hypothesis as documented in the literature review section of the report. This should be no more than one paragraph. A good abstract is: Present your thoughts and opinions in an understandable format and all of your readers will get your point of view. The discussion will always connect to the introduction by way of the research questions or hypotheses you posed and the literature you reviewed, but it does not simply repeat or rearrange the introduction; the discussion should always explain how your study has moved the reader's understanding of the research problem forward from where you left them at the end of the introduction. University College Writing Centre. This should be no more than one paragraph. English Report Writing Examples But if you are looking to put your talents to good use as a public speaker and perhaps as a future lawyer, a good training ground would be to join the debate team. Writing the Discussion Section (printable version here)The Discussion should be written after the Results section so that you have a good idea of what the experiment has demonstrated. Also do not repeat your results, this is a discussion. Give a brief explanation about why you believe the findings and conclusions of your study are important and how they support broader knowledge or understanding of the research problem. Analyzing vs. Summarizing. It is the last part of your paper, in which you summarize your findings in light of the current literature. Typically, a detailed analysis of findings is provided in the conclusion section, including the reasons for not achieving the predicted outcome if the results did not meet the expectations. Usually around 4 to 8 key words or phrases are permitted. Here's how you should write this section: 1. Comment on their relative importance in relation to your overall interpretation of the results and, if necessary, note how they may affect the validity of the findings. The activity of the salivary amylase enzyme in this experiment increased with temperature up to 37°C. In all these cases, it is imperative that a lab report be factual and provide adequate summarization of findings, backed by concrete evidence. You don’t have to write the report alone. Venkatesh has more than 25 years of experience in different industries including telecommunications, healthcare, banking and financial management, government, transportation and logistics, education, and consumer goods. Avoid repeating information, unless the information is expanded to provide additional insight. An abstract is a super-short summary and is difficult to write. University of Toronto; Summary: Using it Wisely. If the research uncovers some open issues that have to be further analyzed, the report should suggest further work to explore them. Organize the discussion from the general to the specific, linking your findings to the literature, then to theory, then to practice [if appropriate]. If needed, use subheadings to help organize your presentation or to group your interpretations into themes. It can also formulate a new theory around the results. How to write the Discussion section of a scientific research paper. After reading the discussion section, you want the reader to think about the results [“why hadn’t I thought of that?”]. If you feel compelled to speculate, be certain that you clearly identify your comments as speculation or as a suggestion for where further research is needed. This demonstrates to the reader you have inadequately examined and interpreted the data. The discussion can start with a summary of the aims and the results (write about x-fold or % changes rather than just repeating the results) You should try to explain the results, but only within the context of the study - integrating swags of theory into the discussion is not necessary and leads to rambling reports. Your Discussion and Conclusions sections should answer the question: What do your results mean? Systematically explain the meaning of the findings and why you believe they are important. Avoid using an apologetic tone; however, be honest and self-critical. V. Acknowledge the Study’s Limitations Fourteen Steps to Writing to Writing an Effective Discussion Section. When writing the discussion section, you should carefully consider all possible explanations for the study results, rather than just those that fit your hypothesis or prior assumptions and biases. Even if you are sure that they are significant, it doesn’t mean that you should repeat them many times. https://wordvice.com/research-writing-tips-editing-manuscript-discussion The next step is to find the information you need for your report. A company may create its product strategy based on the report findings. Let’s accept this: Writing a paper is daunting, and sometimes the most difficult and thought-provoking part is writing the ‘discussion’ section. George Mason University; Discussion. You should write a direct, declarative, and succinct proclamation of the study results. The Writing Center. Reiterate the Research Problem/State the Major Findings. That being said, here is how you can write an effective analytical report: This is the section where you need to present the importance of your study and how it may be able to contribute to and/or fill existing gaps in the field. Explain the Meaning of the Findings and Why They are Important. University of North Carolina; Schafer, Mickey S. Writing the Discussion. Your interpretation must be original and you can write from being specific to general and do … Explain how your findings/results relate to what is already known in the field as well as to what you … Check the guidelines of the journal to which you plan to submit your study. Describe the generalizability of your results to other situations, if applicable to the method chosen, then describe in detail problems you encountered in the method(s) you used to gather information. When writing the discussion section, you should carefully consider all possible explanations for the study results, rather than just those that fit your prior assumptions or biases. The success of your analytical report is a combination of accurate content discussion, proper formatting, strong and appropriate recommendations and overall document development. After you have written the results, start to write a discussion. The order of interpreting each major finding should be in the same order as they were described in your results section. If a study that you cited disagrees with your findings, don't ignore it--clearly explain why the study's findings differ from yours. Choose words that you would use to search for your article. Start by rewriting your research questions and re-stating your hypothesis (if any) that you previously … Department of Biology. If more than one unexpected finding emerged during the study, describe each them in the order they appeared as you gathered the data. Ask the committee members for help or ask for a mentor that has written a report … Describe the generalizability of your results to other situations, if applicable to the method chosen, then describe in detail problems you encountered in the method(s) you used to gather information. First of all, never select a topic that doesn’t touch you. However, do not offer recommendations which could have been easily addressed within the study. In this chapter, you can make references to earlier resear… II. The discussion section should definitely have a statement of your expected findings (Pechenik, 86). Lab reports are an essential part of scientific study and knowledge. In an ideal world, you could simply reject your null or alternative hypotheses according to the significance levels found by the statistics.That is the main point of your discussion section, but the process is usually a lot more complex than that. He has worked for many fortune 500 companies, including Unilever, AT&T, McKesson, and UPS. How to Write a Chemistry Lab Report. The conclusion section can also include lessons learned and future research areas that could shed further light on the current experiment. Obviously, you must refer to your results when discussing them, but focus on the, https://library.sacredheart.edu/c.php?g=29803, Fourteen Steps to Writing to Writing an Effective Discussion Section. Each conclusion should be supported with appropriate evidence. Relate the Findings to Similar Studies, No study is so novel or possesses such a restricted focus that it has absolutely no relation to other previously published research. If appropriate, refer the reader to a figure or table to help enhance the interpretation of the data. Begin by discussing the research question and talking about whether it was answered in the research paper based on the results. The discussion should cover all of the objectives specified in the report in depth. A good discussion section includes analysis of any unexpected findings. Department of English Writing Guide. Bates College; Hess, Dean R. How to Write an Effective Discussion. If you need some assistance in understanding how to write reports, ask for a copy of a report that was submitted in the past and use it as a template. No study is so novel or possesses such a restricted focus that it has absolutely no relation to other previously published research. Obviously, you must refer to your results when discussing them, but focus on the interpretion of those results, not just the data itself. You don’t want to force the reader to go through the paper multiple times to figure out what it all means. Do not repeat specific ideas too often. San Francisco Edit, 2003-2008. One of the most common mistakes that you can make when discussing the results of your study is to present a superficial interpretation of the findings that more or less re-states the results section of your paper. Consider Alternative Explanations of the Findings. Venkatesh holds a Ph.D. in computer science from Nova Southeastern University. There should be a comparison of your results and your expected findings. Explain the Meaning of the Findings and Why They are Important. A laboratory report can be used for several purposes. For students, discussion often bridges the gap between the speaking and listening learning areas and reading and writing ones. The sequencing of providing this information is important; first state the answer, then the relevant results, then cite the work of others. Azar, Beth. Before concluding the discussion, identify potential limitations and weaknesses. Don’t just repeat all the data you have already reported – aim for a clear statement of the overall result that directly answers your main research question. A conclusion section provides a synopsis of work in which the results findings are mapped to the objectives. Briefly reiterate for your readers the research problem or problems you are investigating and the methods you used to investigate them, then move quickly to describe the major findings of the study. Use the present verb tense, especially for established facts; however, refer to specific works and references in the past tense. Make Suggestions for Further Research. San Francisco Edit, 2003-2008; The Lab Report. Info on abstracts from APA manual: An abstract is a brief, comprehensive summary of the contents of an article, allowing readers to survey the contents quickly. A lab report should not include any conflicting information that might cause confusion and trigger questions about the credibility of the report. IV. A lab report can also be used for criminal investigation by the police personnel. VI. However, take care not to overspeculate. The discussion section should remain focused on the findings of your study. Writing up. Boston, MA: Allyn and Bacon, 2009. Sometimes your professor will encourage you to expand the discussion in this way, while others don’t care what your opinion is beyond your efforts to interpret the data. Use the same key terms, mode of narration, and verb tense [present] that you used when when describing the research problem in the introduction. Use the same key terms, mode of narration, and verb tense [present] that you used when when describing the research problem in the introduction. Writing a "good" discussion section This is is usually the hardest section to write. This can be followed by any recommendations for further research. Although your study may offer important insights about the research problem, other questions related to the problem likely remain unanswered. Investigative Report “Musts” Before you begin, it’s important to understand the three critical tasks of … This section is often considered the most important part of a research paper because it most effectively demonstrates your ability as a researcher to think critically about an issue, to develop creative solutions to problems based on the findings, and to formulate a deeper, more profound understanding of the research problem you are studying. The discussion section should end with a concise summary of the principal implications of the findings regardless of statistical significance. The report should include interpretation of the results, including any new findings from the research. If you want to write a nice discussion paper, you should express different ideas and opinions on the given topic and provide a discussion based on … George Mason University; One of the most common mistakes that you can make when discussing the results of your study is to present a superficial interpretation of the findings that more or less re-states the results section of your paper. In both cases, discussion and conclusion sections help to synthesize the findings by tying them to the objectives and discussing the implications. This is where you infuse your results with meaning. Start this chapter by reiterating your research problem and concisely summarizing your major findings. I. Discussing Your Findings. You are trying to bring out the true meaning of your data without being too long. This part of the paper is not strictly governed by objective reporting of information but, rather, it is where you can engage in creative thinking about issues through evidence-based interpretation of findings. To do this you … Start this chapter by reiterating your problem statement and research questions and concisely summarising your major findings. Be clear in your writing. In most of the cases, the discussion section revolves around existing theories and hypotheses referenced in the literature review section of the lab report. Describe the patterns, principles, and relationships shown by each major findings and place them in proper perspective. You should: Discuss your conclusions in order of most to least important. This paragraph should begin with a description of the unexpected finding, followed by a brief interpretation as to why you believe it appeared and, if necessary, its possible significance in relation to the overall study. Crucial aspects of a lab report are the discussion and conclusion. It is important to remember that the purpose of research is to discover and not to prove. to formulate a deeper, more profound understanding of the research problem you are studying. To write a good discussion for a lab report, learn to present ideas in a less boring format. It looks like you're using Internet Explorer 11 or older. Note any unanswered questions or issues your study did not address, and.... Analyzing vs. Summarizing. In other words, the majority of the Discussion and Conclusions sections should be an interpretation of your results. For a qualitative paper, although there is no need for statistical analysis of data, there is still a need to interpret the results for your audience in the Discussion section. Moreover, some unanswered questions may have become more focused because of your study. A few historical references may be helpful for perspective but most of the references should be relatively recent and included to aid in the interpretation of your results and/or linked to similar studies. It is important to remember that the purpose of research is to. If you continue with this browser, you may see unexpected results. The discussion section should relate your study findings to those of other studies, particularly if questions raised by previous studies served as the motivation for your study, the findings of other studies support your findings [which strengthens the importance of your study results], and/or they point out how your study differs from other similar studies. Don’t just repeat all the data you have already reported – aim for a clear statement of the overall result that directly answers your main research question.
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