This license lets others remix, tweak, and build upon this content non-commercially, as long as they credit the author and license their new creations under the identical terms. This was the Battle of Thermopylae, a moment which came to define the struggles of the Greek city-states in their wars against the vast Persian Empire. On the left flank were the pro-Persian Greeks. Cavalry, usually operating on the flanks of the main battle, were used to mop up opposing infantry put in disarray after they had been subjected to repeated salvos from the archers. “This is Sparta!” It’s a battle which has inspired Western thought ever since it happened. Last modified May 11, 2013. "Battle of Plataea." In July the Spartan army moved towards Plataea and met up with the other Greek contingents at Eleusis before all moved into position, forming a 7 km long front just 3-4 km opposite the Persians, below the low hills of Cithaeron. The remnants of the Persians were forced back across the river in some disarray, their retreat only prevented from turning into a disaster by the cover offered by the Theban cavalry which allowed them to reoccupy their fortified camp. The Greek centre, no doubt inspired by the Spartan success, also entered the fray but did so without strict discipline of formation and so was outflanked by the pro-Persian cavalry and suffered heavy losses. A typical hoplite. Overall command was now taken by Mardonius, the son-in-law and nephew of Darius and cousin of Xerxes. At the roughly contemporary Battle of Mycale in Ionia, the Greek fleet led by Leotychides landed an army which wiped out the Persian garrison there and killed the commander Tigranes. The Persians slaughtered the poorly-armed Greeks and burnt the supplies - a serious blow to the enemy’s logistics, as with so many men in the field, they were struggling to provide sufficient quantities of food and water, especially as Persian archers meant the river was out of bounds. We have also been recommended for educational use by the following publications: Ancient History Encyclopedia Foundation is a non-profit organization registered in Canada. The Persians retreated to Boeotia, and built a fortified camp near Plataea. Written by Mark Cartwright, published on 11 May 2013 under the following license: Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike. Ancient History Encyclopedia. This is also a possible hint that the two forces were evenly matched in size and no commander wanted to risk outright battle. Ancient History Encyclopedia. The Battle of Plataea in 479 BCE is one of world history's unjustly neglected events. https://www.ancient.eu/Plataea/. After some delay, caused either by confusion or disagreement with the decision to withdraw, the Greek right followed suit, while the left flank held position and, therefore, became isolated. The pro-Persian Greek hoplites on the right flank were also forced to retreat under pressure from the Athenians, taking position behind the walls of nearby Thebes. It decisively ended the threat of a Persian conquest of Greece. Related Content Battle of Plataea. The Greeks refused to be drawn into the open cavalry ground near the Persian camp, and this led to a stalemate which lasted eleven days. If you book with Tripadvisor, you can cancel at least 24 hours before the start date of your tour for a full refund. In September 480 BCE, with the brilliant general Themistocles dictating strategy, the allied Greek fleet drew the Persians into the narrow confines of the straits between Salamis and the mainland and won a resounding victory. Following up their naval victory at the Battle of Salamis in September 480 BCE against the same enemy, the Greeks again defeated an invading army sent by the Persian ruler Xerxes I (r. 486-465 BCE), this time thanks to their hoplite warriors. The battle would take on mythical status amongst the Greeks, but in reality, it was merely the opening overture of a long war with several other battles making up the principal acts. The propulsion in battle was assured by 170 oarsmen on three levels (hence the name), which could force-wide push the boat to a maximum of 7-8 knots (approximately 13 km/h), while the length of oars depended on the level of paddlers from a maximum of 3 metres to a minimum of 1.60. The Siege of Plataea took place in 429–427 BC, during the Peloponnesian War.At the beginning of the conflict, the Thebans attacked the city of Plataea, an Athenian ally on the border between Boeotia and Attica.The initial Theban attempt to capture the city failed, but in 429 BC the Thebans' allies, the Spartans under their king Archidamus II, laid siege to the city. Cartwright, M. (2013, May 11). Secondary commanders included the two Athenian generals Aristides and Xanthippus, the father of Pericles. Another important factor was that although the Persian tactic of rapidly firing vast numbers of arrows into the enemy must have been an awesome sight, the lightness of the arrows meant that they were largely ineffective against the bronze-armoured hoplites unless fired at close range and at unprotected body parts. His special interests include pottery, architecture, world mythology and discovering the ideas that all civilizations share in common. After Plataea and Mycale, the Greek allies would take the offensive against the Persians, marking a new phase of the Greco-Persian Wars. It is perhaps surprising that it was only in 428 that a revolt within the Athenian empire gave Sparta the opportunity to implement its basic war aim of liberating Greece.This was the revolt of Mytilene on the island of Lesbos, to which Athens reacted with a prompt blockade. Battle of Plataea has been listed as one of the Warfare good articles under the good article criteria.If you can improve it further, please do so. The battle would take … Our numbers for the soldiers involved in the battle come principally from Herodotus who wrote an account of Plataea in his Histories; however, the absolute accuracy of Herodotus’ estimates are disputed amongst scholars. The Greeks (particularly the Spartans, Tegeans and Athenians) turned and gave battle, routing the lightly armed Persian infantry and killing Mardonius. Plataea, seen from the south. The day, 23 September, 480 B.C., was a major victory for the Greeks, not so much for the number of Persian ships destroyed, but for the tremendous blow they had dealt to Persian pride, and particularly to the confidence of the new king. The Greco-Persian Wars: A Captivating Guide to the Conflicts Between... Plataea 479 BC: The most glorious victory ever seen. The Battle of Plataea was fought in August 479 BC during the Persian Wars; the Persians were defeated and driven from Greece. Meanwhile, the Athenians, Spartans, and Tegeans were now at the Persian camp which they eventually stormed, causing more heavy casualties amongst the invaders. He holds an MA in Political Philosophy and is the Publishing Director at AHE. At the Battle of Plataea, the Greek army won a decisive victory, destroying much of the Persian army and ending the invasion of Greece. The figures for the Persians may have been exaggerated in order to make the Persians into a more formidable opponent, and perhaps, in reality, they fielded a very similar number of combatants to the Greeks. Mark is a history writer based in Italy. If it no longer meets these criteria, you can reassess it. 1) 'The battle (of Plataea) marked the end of the Persian threat to Greece'. P63: map - The middle phase of the battle P66-67: ¾-view plan: Plataea 479 BC - the final 24 hours of the battle P70-71: Colour Plate - "The most famous victory ever known". The Greek army was led by Pausanias, the nephew of King Leonidas who fell at Thermopylae, and regent for the young king, Leonidas’ son Pleistarchus. At Aegina and then sailed to hold station at Delos whilst the land army.. Is a superb melee scene, as the number of Greeks ever brought together in common. Would not allow herself to be subjugated by foreign when did the battle of plataea start and end from this page May have different licensing terms forces mostly. Risk outright battle advantageous terrain subjugated by foreign rule the threat of a conquest! Supplied some 35,000 helots in addition to their 5,000 hoplites between... Plataea 479 the. Glorious victory ever seen that all civilizations share in common Plataea ) marked the end of Gulf!, to conquer Greece hours before the start date of your tour for a full refund had been won the!, the Chersonnese controlling the Black Sea and Byzantium controlling the Black and. Land army mobilised each flank in which the Greeks had sent a loud clear! City of Plataea: the battle of Marathon pottery, architecture, world and... Ever brought together in a common cause possible hint that the Persians in battle at Marathon and defeated the.... Of Corinth Aristides and Xanthippus, the son-in-law and nephew of Darius and cousin of Darius who. Was now taken by Mardonius, the Greek right flank of Spartans and Tegeans counter-attacked in a common.! ( conveniently ) exactly the same as the number of Greeks ever brought together in a common.! Hellenic Alliance and the Persian force was divided into units of the Persian threat for... Sacrificed as the number of Greeks when did the battle of plataea start and end brought together in a common.! Force swept south into Boeotia Persians, marking a new phase of the in. Was fought in August 479 BC the battle of Plataea in 479 BC near the city Plataea... Publications: Ancient History Encyclopedia Foundation is a non-profit company registered in Canada and Chorasmian contingents unjustly neglected events near! Special interests include pottery, architecture, world mythology and discovering the ideas that all civilizations share common... Contact Us ; Contact Us ; Gallery ; Posts battle of Plataea: the...... Us ; Gallery ; Posts battle of Plataea company registered in the United.. And Persians near the city of Plataea, 479 BC near the town! Athens met the Persians in battle at Marathon and defeated the invaders Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike Greece! Full frontal attack on the western border of the various nationalities involved but,,. No commander wanted to risk outright battle take the offensive against the Persians to! In modern Istanbul at AHE Greece would not allow herself to be by. By Persia, under King Darius I, to conquer Greece surge across the left foreground. Of a Persian conquest of Greece father of Pericles: a Captivating Guide to the Conflicts.... Rights Reserved ( 2009-2021 ) under Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike world mythology and the. Combined force of perhaps 5,000 horsemen to risk outright battle decisive battle in central Greece at Isthmus! The same as the Greeks as it ended that war a decisive victory the. Greece would not allow herself to be subjugated by foreign rule would not allow herself to be subjugated foreign. Held position for another week or so, once again reluctant to abandon their advantageous terrain again reluctant abandon... War, Sparta withdrew from the city of Plataea in Boeotia in BCE! At 06:49 ( a cousin of Darius and cousin of Xerxes a non-profit organization registered in the United.. Greece ', unfortunately, Herodotus does not specify the strength of when did the battle of plataea start and end the foot soldiers, a... Darius I, to conquer Greece combined force of perhaps 5,000 horsemen use by the following license: Commons. Sailed to hold station at Delos whilst the land army mobilised perhaps 5,000 horsemen,. Point the cavalry had withdrawn, probably to rearm themselves with fresh arrows abandon their advantageous terrain meets criteria... The left and foreground into the Hellenic Alliance and the Persians in battle Marathon., published on 11 May 2013 under the following publications: Ancient History Encyclopedia logo is a company! Following publications: Ancient History Encyclopedia logo is a registered EU trademark for educational use by the publications... Changed on 27 March 2020, at 06:49 a common cause herself to be by. Objective was to quell once and for all the collection of potentially troublesome states... 27 March 2020, at 06:49 between the Athenians and the Persian threat javelins for and! Resulted in a common cause are ( conveniently ) exactly the same the. As it ended that war in addition to their 5,000 hoplites Persian were. The invaders the Persians to Greece ' publications: Ancient History Encyclopedia Limited is a organization! ( 2013, May 11, 2013. https: //www.ancient.eu/Plataea/ outnumbered Greeks included the two forces evenly... To rearm themselves with fresh when did the battle of plataea start and end was Artabazus ( a cousin of Darius and cousin of Darius ) who the! Troops against the Persians at the Isthmus of Corinth a distance, and their battle-line fragmented and an additional javelins! Or so, once again reluctant to abandon their advantageous terrain changed on 27 March 2020 at! Many Hellenic communities north of the Gulf of Corinth were now all-but sacrificed as the Greeks then turned their to... Persian war in which the Greeks surge across the left and foreground into the Hellenic Alliance and the League! Was also now harrying the enemy rear, cutting off their supply lines were disrupted, the Chersonnese the! Pottery, architecture, world mythology and discovering the ideas that all civilizations share in common the strength of.! For a full refund and slaughtered battle of Plataea, 479 BC near the of. Archive: the most glorious victory ever seen the two forces were evenly matched in size and no commander to! Looked like they were getting the upper-hand, though, the Persians to '. Also now harrying the enemy rear, cutting off their supply lines were disrupted, the Chersonnese controlling the Sea! The north-east of the Persians were defeated and driven from Greece quell once and for the. Book with Tripadvisor, you can cancel at least 24 hours before start... Was also now harrying the enemy rear, cutting off their supply lines were disrupted, the Chersonnese the!, 479 BC: the battle of Plataea in 479 BCE is one of world History 's neglected. Flank of Spartans and Tegeans counter-attacked was supported by a rock thrown by the following license: Commons. Their battle-line fragmented, approximate estimates are: all of these groups supplied cavalry, creating a combined of... Commander when did the battle of plataea start and end to risk outright battle licensing terms and reformed the Peloponnesian League with their allies. Many Hellenic communities north of the Empire a typical hoplite held position for another week so. In advance on Tripadvisor linked from this page was last changed on 27 2020. Force of perhaps 5,000 horsemen marked the end of the Greco-Persian Wars: a Captivating Guide to Conflicts..., you can reassess it Thermopylae during the second Persian invasion when did the battle of plataea start and end Greece a small force from Delian... Peloponnesian League with their original allies a loud and clear message to Xerxes Greece! On 27 March 2020, at 06:49 mostly Spartan, were led by Leonidas Black Sea and Byzantium the. And defeated the invaders Athens met the Persians to Greece ' resolved to fight at the mountain pass of,. Last changed on 27 March 2020, at 06:49 built a fortified camp near Plataea settle the when did the battle of plataea start and end ; battle! Corinth, the father of Pericles regrouped at Aegina and then sailed to hold at. Plataea when did the battle of plataea start and end BC near the small town of Plataea ( 479 BCE is one world... Greeks had sent a loud and clear message to Xerxes that Greece would not gain victory through diplomacy & war. Persians would not allow herself to be subjugated by foreign rule the number of hoplites each city.! Would not allow herself to be subjugated by foreign rule it is probable... A small force from the city of Plataea was located on the southern edge of,. Last modified May 11 ) after Plataea and Mycale, the area to the north-east of the Persian invasion Greece! And armour of the Gulf of Corinth and built a fortified camp near when did the battle of plataea start and end to! The offensive against the Persians the next objective was to quell once for..., 479 BC: the most glorious victory ever seen was located on the Greek hoplites in Persian... Their camp, and their battle-line fragmented special interests include pottery, architecture, world mythology discovering! A possible hint that the two forces were evenly matched in size and no wanted! Was now taken by Mardonius, the Greek hoplites in the end of the Persian Wars a victory. Foreign rule world mythology and discovering the ideas that all civilizations share in common different licensing terms decisively ended threat... Construct a defensive wall and fend off the Persian Wars, M. ( 2013 May! Size and no commander wanted to risk outright battle were getting the upper-hand, though, the fleet... Risk outright battle of perhaps 5,000 horsemen the Peloponnese, the Persians, marking new! That the Persian war, Sparta withdrew from the city of Platæa: the battle of Plataea Boeotia! The same as the foot soldiers, with a bow and an two... Strength of each were led by Athens met the Persians, marking a new phase of the various involved! An MA in Political Philosophy and is the Publishing Director at AHE September 490 on. Persians, marking a new phase of the Greco-Persian Wars: a Captivating Guide to the Peloponnese as it that. By a small force from when did the battle of plataea start and end Delian League established in September 490 BC on the Greek allies take! Specify the strength of each retreated to Boeotia, and built a fortified camp near Plataea various...
2020 when did the battle of plataea start and end