Technical Series No. Appl. 35, 1205–1213. 208, 171–188. (2013). Under controlled conditions, Tanner and Parham (2010) were able to germinate and grow Z. marina plants to a size that was large enough for transplanting within 70–100 days. In the tropics of Queensland, historically, seagrasses have shown a remarkable capacity to recover from large disturbance events without direct intervention (Rasheed et al., 2014; Coles et al., 2015). doi: 10.1146/annurev-ecolsys-110512-135747, Ambo-Rappe, R., and Yasir, I. doi: 10.1515/bot-2012-0200. Res. However, many other restoration efforts have seen lower rates of success (van Katwijk et al., 2016). J. Appl. Ecol. Total Environ. The impacts of climate change in coastal marine systems. Unintended recruitment has already been reported, for example, in Singapore, where a small seagrass meadow formed on a reclaimed shoreline behind a breakwater (Yaakub et al., 2014; Lai et al., 2018). It is important to note that seagrass restoration is at the stage where effective methods are still in development, and while we are going through this phase, many failures are to be expected. Centre for Tropical Water & Aquatic Ecosystem Research (TropWATER) Report 17/35. Niche partitioning of intertidal seagrasses: evidence of the influence of substrate temperature. (2007). Conserv. (2016). “Empowering indigenous community engagement and approaches in lake restoration: an Āotearoa-New Zealand perspective,” in Lake Restoration Handbook. Mar. (2018). With the exception of the research undertaken by Matheson, restoration efforts in New Zealand are typically focused upon shellfish (e.g., Marsden and Adkins, 2010; Hewitt and Cummings, 2013), which are important taonga for Māori (e.g., Paul-Burke et al., 2018). Bioscience 62, 56–65. Tuya, F., Haroun, R., and Espino, F. (2014). PLoS One 7:e38397. |. The use, distribution or reproduction in other forums is permitted, provided the original author(s) and the copyright owner(s) are credited and that the original publication in this journal is cited, in accordance with accepted academic practice. To track changes in eelgrass, DMF maps eelgrass throughout the state and participates in SeagrassNet, an international seagrass monitoring network. Thus, the overall effectiveness of the method might be limited. Matheson, NIWA, pers. This cost can be greatly reduced by engaging “citizen scientists” or volunteers. Environ. Evaluating vegetative transplant success in Posidonia australis: a field trial with habitat enhancement. 87, 158–168. 18, 538–548. Mar. The establishment of water-clarity goals to reduce sediment and nutrient inputs from upland sources, tidal shorelines, tidal resuspension, and estuarine processes will facilitate seagrass restoration and recovery. It costs about $45,000 to restore an acre of seagrass if you count only the cost of collecting, preparing, and planting the seagrass plugs (Fonseca et al. 138, 29–36. doi: 10.3354/meps08828, van der Heide, T., Govers, L. L., de Fouw, J., Olff, H., van der Geest, M., van Katwijk, M. M., et al. While sound polices and legislation may provide a firm foundation for upscaling seagrass restoration efforts, investment may be quickly undermined if resources are not carefully targeted to areas where threats to seagrass persistence have been removed or reduced, successful seagrass restoration is feasible, stakeholders are willing and able to invest, and the benefits to other environmental and social values are the greatest. Consequently, projections of rising sea surface temperatures and more frequent heatwave events pose a significant risk to both natural and restored seagrass populations (Smale et al., 2019). Ecol. Silliman, B. R., Schrack, E., He, Q., Cope, R., Santoni, A., van der Heide, T., et al. Facilitating recruitment of Amphibolis as a novel approach to seagrass rehabilitation in hydrodynamically active waters. Restoring subtidal marine macrophytes in the Anthropocene: trajectories and future-proofing. 40, 217–225. What is ecological engineering? A. Terrados et al. doi: 10.1111/aec.12151, Harley, C. D. G., Hughes, A. R., Hultgren, K. M., Miner, B. G., Sorte, C. J. Impacts of oyster reef restoration on primary productivity and nutrient dynamics in tidal creeks of the north central Gulf of Mexico. Ser. Biodegradable materials, such as hessian and jute, have also been trialed with great success. doi: 10.1111/mec.14341, Kendrick, G. A., Nowicki, R. J., Olsen, Y. S., Strydom, S., Fraser, M. W., Sinclair, E. A., et al. doi: 10.1023/a:1007965506873, Koch, M., Bowes, G., Ross, C., and Zhang, X. Mullard, A. Lett. Aust. (2014). (2019). Similarly, intertidal species show niche partitioning of rhizome depth based upon substrate temperature envelopes (Campbell et al., 2018), which has further implications when selecting plants from donor for receiving environs and transplantation depth. Eng. Seed germination in a southern Australian temperate seagrass. Rep. 7:14469. doi: 10.1038/s41598-017-14044-1, Freeman, A. S., Short, F. T., Isnain, I., Razak, F. A., and Coles, R. G. (2008). Declines to date have amounted to an estimated loss of 29% of areal extent, or 3370 km2, since records started in 1879 (Waycott et al., 2009). Ecol. —Eelgrass restoration using seeds is increasingly recognized as a viable option for both small- and large-scale projects. “The seagrasses of New Zealand,” in World Atlas of Seagrasses, eds E. P. Green and F. T. Short (Berkeley, CA: University of California Press), 134–143. Yet, despite their environmental, socio-economic and cultural value, seagrasses globally are undergoing accelerated rates of decline due to a range of threats including rising sea surface temperatures, extreme temperature events, coastal development, coastal urban and agricultural runoffs, and untreated sewage and industrial waste outfalls (Freeman et al., 2008; Grech et al., 2012; Arias-Ortiz et al., 2018). (2019). Ecol. 20, 80–90. Front. 174, 25–37. Ecol. doi: 10.1579/0044-7447-31.7.588, Halpern, B. S., Silliman, B. R., Olden, J. D., Bruno, J. P., and Bertness, M. D. (2007). Ser. A comparison of threats, vulnerabilities and management approaches in global seagrass bioregions. 3:65. doi: 10.3389/fevo.2015.00065, Ralph, P. J., Durako, M. J., Enríquez, S., Collier, C. J., and Doblin, M. A. Shelf Sci. Plant-bivalve interactions have been shown to be largely positive, with a review which included all marine angiosperms (i.e., seagrass, salt marshes, mangroves, and freshwater submerged aquatic vegetation) showing that 70% of studies with a restoration focus showed positive interactions compared to 5% for negative interactions (Gagnon et al., 2020). Sea surface temperatures and seagrass mortality in Florida Bay: spatial and temporal patterns discerned from MODIS and AVHRR data. (2013). Although survival of transplanted seagrass fragments or cores was low in many studies, promising results are increasingly reported, with transplant units surviving more than 2 years or showing shoot densities similar to naturally occurring meadows (e.g., Bastyan and Cambridge, 2008; Oceanica Consulting Pty Ltd., 2011, Matheson et al., 2017). Ecological engineering was first formally defined as “the design of sustainable ecosystems that integrate human society with its natural environment for the benefit of both” (Mitsch, 2012). Tanner, J. E., and Theil, M. J. Lett. Norman Gardens, QLD: Central Queensland University. J. Ecol. Restor. (2017). 56, 1015–1021. doi: 10.1007/s10021-003-0180-6, Ince, R., Hyndes, G. A., Lavery, P. S., and Vanderklift, M. A. The central role of dispersal in the maintenance and persistence of seagrass populations. Biogeochem 87, 113–126. Sci. Geo-Mar. Proc. These same principles can be applied to seagrass restoration. doi: 10.1890/1540-929520075[153:IPIIAR]2.0.CO;2, Hampe, A., and Petit, R. J. Seagrass rehabilitation off metropolitan Adelaide: a case study of loss, action, failure and success. Future restoration programs should dedicate funding for monitoring programs to ensure that appropriate monitoring durations are captured. “Seagrass transplantation and other seagrass restoration methods,” in Global Seagrass Research Methods, eds F. T. Short and R. G. Coles (Amsterdam: Elsevier Science), 425–443. Ruiz-Halpern, S., Macko, S. A., and Fourqurean, J. W. (2008). 261, 123–134. doi: 10.1071/MF18226, Yaakub, S. M., McKenzie, L. J., Erftemeijer, P. L. A., Bouma, T., and Todd, P. A. Large-Scale Zostera marina (eelgrass) restoration in Chesapeake Bay, Maryland, USA. Such approaches can also help to overcome fitness reductions is small, inbred and genetically depauperate populations (Broadhurst et al., 2008; Weeks et al., 2011). Orth, R. J., S. R. Marion, et al. Higher seagrass cover and biomass increases sexual reproductive effort: a rare case study of Zostera muelleri in New Zealand. Change Biol. Among the studies with long-term monitoring, many lack regular monitoring, with a few studies only monitoring at the start and end of the restoration trial (e.g., Connolly et al., 2016). Physiological responses of Ecklonia Radiata (Laminariales) to a latitudinal gradient in ocean temperature. The seagrass salvage program recovers seagrasses which would otherwise be lost as a result of marine construction (i.e., docks, piers) and transplants the grass to areas of similar habitat where beds are in need of restoration. Freshw. Seagrass Meadows as Biodiversity and Productivity Hotspots. In New Zealand, a national scale inventory of seagrass has recently been collated by the Department of Conservation’s SeaSketch project. Mar. While long-term monitoring in this study has shown that T. testudinum recolonization was still incomplete at 7 years (Furman et al., 2019), Tanner and Theil (2019) have found both Zostera and Posidonia seagrasses naturally recruiting within patches of restored Amphibolis. 13, 499–506. Importantly such monitoring needs to incorporate larger spatial scale assessments and mapping to be effective. Adelaide: Department for Environment and Water. doi: 10.1515/bot-2017-0117, Tanner, C. E., Hunter, S., Reel, J., Parham, T., Naylor, M., Karrh, L., et al. Fishman, J. R., R. J. Orth, et al. 250, 133–167. (2010). McLeod, I., Schmider, J., Creighton, C., and Gillies, C. (2018). Aquat. Biol. Gloucester Point, VA Nat. This is important given the differences in the geographical range of some Australian and New Zealand species. In Australia, seedling culture has also been carried out on Prunus angustifolia (Irving et al., 2010) and P. australis (Statton et al., 2013). Restor. Baltic Sea. Site specific differences in morphometry and photophysiology in intertidal Zostera muelleri meadows. The SeaArt Project (2020). Extrapolating from the costs of the small-scale trial conducted here, it will cost on the order of $10,000 to rehabilitate one hectare of seagrass. This work was supported by The Nature Conservancy and the Marine Biodiversity Hub, a collaborative partnership supported through funding from the Australian Government’s National Environmental Science Program (NESP) Marine Biodiversity Hub. Coast. doi: 10.1016/S0022-0981(97)00060-9, Valdemarsen, T., Canal-Vergés, P., Kristensen, E., Holmer, M., Kristiansen, M. D., and Flindt, M. R. (2010). HAM2012-037. Storm-generated fragments of the seagrass Posidonia oceanica from beach wrack – a potential source of transplants for restoration. Converting beach-cast seagrass wrack into biochar: a climate-friendly solution to a coastal problem. These same principles could be applied to seagrass restoration, following studies to elucidate conditions where settlement and/or colonization can be promoted. Marion, S. R. and R. J. Orth 2010. The cost and feasibility of marine coastal restoration. Ecosystem-based coastal defence in the face of global change. doi: 10.1111/mec.14939, Sinclair, E. A., Verduin, J. J., Krauss, S. L., Hardinge, J., Anthony, J. M., and Kendrick, G. A. Monitoring of physically restored seagrass meadows reveals a slow rate of recovery for Thalassia testudinum. Correlation between fitness and genetic diversity. SeaArt – Long Term Establishment of SEAgrass Ecosystems Through Biodegradable ARTificial Meadows. (2019). Ecol. Pollut. Mar. The decline in seagrass habitats has clear and detrimental ecological and socio-economic consequences, and stemming this decline through facilitating recovery is urgently needed. (2016). Estuar. Indigenous biocultural knowledge in ecosystem science and management: review and insight from Australia. (2015). Conserv. 2001; price levels reflect 2001 dollars). Final Report Prepared for the Adelaide and Mount Lofty Ranges Natural Resources Management Board. Light penetration in a temperate meso-tidal lagoon: implications for seagrass growth and dredging in Tauranga Harbour, New Zealand. These efforts resulted in epifauna invertebrate recovery in the 1990s (Lefcheck et al., 2017). doi: 10.1111/emr.12028. Local adaptation and cogradient selection in the alpine plant, Poa Hiemata, along a narrow altitudinal gradient. Climate-adjusted provenancing: a strategy for climate-resilient ecological restoration. Furthermore, seagrass losses are expected to continue, further exacerbated by climate change impacts. Molec. Danish waters are typically characterized with periods of severe wave action, and it has not been possible to transplant Z. marina as unanchored shoots which tend to be uprooted within short periods. doi: 10.1007/s10499-009-9270-6, Martin, B. C., Alarcon, M. S., Gleeson, D., Middleton, J. Populations inhabiting trailing (or warming) range edges are often less well connected through dispersal, but can exhibit a high degree of local adaptation and thus contain unique genotypes necessary for future survival. Ecology 75, 1927–1939. Trophic cascades in a temperate seagrass community. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2486.2012.02791.x, Kohlmeier, D., Pilditch, C. A., Bornman, J. F., and Bischof, K. (2014). Ecosyst. However, this negates the benefits of self-facilitation (van der Heide et al., 2007). Seagrass meadows at the edge of their range may have lower genetic diversity and higher levels of clonality (e.g., Evans et al., 2014) or have reduced seed production as a result of pollen limitation (e.g., Sinclair et al., in press). Improving Wetland Restoration Success 2014 – 2015 Webinar Series Temperate and Tropical/Subtropical Seagrass Restoration: Challenges for the 21 st Century Presenters: Roy R. "Robin" Lewis, III, Lewis Environmental Services, Inc. & Coastal Resource Group, Inc. and Mark Fonseca, CSA Ocean Sciences, Inc. The majority of seagrass restoration trials to date have used shoot-based techniques, with at least 46 studies since 1986 (Supplementary Table S1). Australia and New Zealand could expand on these existing polices, and learn from other regions which have more proactive policies on marine restoration, such as Living Shorelines (National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration [NOAA], 2015), or from terrestrial ecosystems [e.g., Working for Water South Africa (Department of Environmental Affairs, 2019) or the Atlantic Forest Restoration Pact (2016)]. in Tauranga Harbour from 1959–1996. Front. 46, 828–834. Restor. Lastly, we discuss the need for management strategies that address the threats of climate change and incorporate evolutionary potential for “climate-proofing” remnant and restored seagrass meadows. Trends. Getting the foundation right: a scientifically based management framework to aid in the planning and implementation of seagrass transplant efforts. doi: 10.1038/s41558-019-0412-1, Smith, T. M., York, P. H., Broitman, B. R., Thiel, M., Hays, G. C., et al. doi: 10.1016/j.ocecoaman.2014.04.032, Tuya, F., Vila, F., Bergasa, O., Zarranz, M., Espino, F., and Robaina, R. R. (2017). Change Biol. Natural hardwood is a favorite flooring for people who like the idea of using mostly natural materials in their flooring, but it can get expensive. doi: 10.1016/j.rse.2018.02.014, Carstensen, J., Krause-Jensen, D., Markager, S., Timmermann, K., and Windolf, J. Initial seagrass restoration studies date back to 1939, with the majority of the work occurring in the United States, Europe or eastern Asia (China, Japan, and Korea). Lett. 30. Acad. Bot. Rev. 360, 357–366. In this instance, ecological engineering is a form of “passive” restoration, where the conditions to encourage settlement and establishment are included in development design. (2013). (2001). Nat. (2013) used Posidonia oceanica seedlings from beach-cast fruits for seagrass plantings and obtained relatively high success, with 44% survival for 3 years. doi: 10.1111/faf.12259, Nowicki, R. J., Thomson, J. Manage. Monit. Buoy-deployed seeding: demonstration of a new eelgrass (Zostera marina L.) planting method. Seagrass ecosystems in the Western Indian Ocean. We focus on some of the challenges that remain and need to be overcome to enable large-scale seagrass restoration and highlight emerging tools and techniques being developed that can help achieve restoration success. TEK is useful in countering perceptions around “shifting baselines,” especially in “pristine” conservation areas (Jardine, 2019), and observations and whole system approaches to ecosystem health and climate change (e.g., Mantyka-Pringle et al., 2017; Nursey-Bray et al., 2019). (1993). Biol. ), Seagrass Restoration: Success, Failure, and the Costs of Both. Sci. Coasts 38, 668–678. Rest. 15, 227–237. doi: 10.1016/j.jembe.2004.03.022, Rasheed, M. A., McKenna, S., Carter, A., and Coles, R. G. (2014). B 370:20140003. Syst. One of the major gaps in knowledge remains our understanding of how to restore tropical species in Australia. de Lange, P. J., Rolfe, J. R., Barkla, J. W., Courtney, S. O., Champion, P. D., et al. doi: 10.1016/j.marpolbul.2014.03.050. Restoration of tropical seagrass beds using wild bird fertilization and sediment regrading. These bacteria are present in lucinid clam gills (van der Heide et al., 2012) but have also been found growing directly on the roots of numerous different seagrass species and may alleviate sulfide stress (Martin et al., 2020b). doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0038397, Reynolds, L. K., Waycott, M., and McGlathery, K. J. Mar. 13, 918–934. (2007). Coast. Irving, A. D., Tanner, J. E., Seddon, S., Miller, D., Collings, G. J., Wear, R. J., et al. Bioscience 61, 107–116. 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M., Dunn, R. J. K., Flindt, M. R., Jackson, E. L., Kristensen, E., McKenna, S., et al. The effects of manipulating microhabitat size and variability on tropical seawall biodiversity: field and flume experiments. Climate-related genetic variation in drought-resistance of Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii). Change Biol. 28, 3053–3072. Cairns: James Cook University, 44. Ecol. doi: 10.1016/j.ecoleng.2017.09.007, Jänes, H., Macreadie, P. I., Nicholson, E., Ierodioconou, D., Reeves, S., Taylor, M. D., et al. Inorganic clay can also be added to the natural sediment to improve cohesiveness of the seed-sediment mixture. doi: 10.1016/j.ecoleng.2017.12.008. doi: 10.1016/j.aquabot.2016.09.001, Udy, J. W., and Dennison, W. C. (1997). doi: 10.1007/s12237-015-9980-0. Shelf Sci. (2017). Efforts are already being made to make use of this valuable resource, such as during the aquaculture of P. australis seedlings where it was recommended as a low cost and readily available nutritional supplement in restoration (Statton et al., 2013). Identifying pre-adapted or “ climate-ready ” seed sources for restoration habitat-specific studies are required to minimize the overall effectiveness the... Settlement, establishment, and Cummings, V. M., Carruthers, T. (! The Asia-Pacific region, Orth, Scott Marion, S. C. ( 2018 ) marina L. ) planting method communities... Presented by mechanized eelgrass seed harvesting be considered and included during restoration restoration trial engagement of local indigenous people shellfish! Coastal environments ( Harley et cost of seagrass restoration, 2016 ) needs to incorporate spatial! 10.1111/J.1461-0248.2005.00739.X, Hancock, N. T. ( 2008 ) Australia and New Zealand FKNMS experiences 500! Adkins, S., Julius, B. C., Olyarnik, S. M. ( 2006 ) areas! Dynamics in tidal creeks of the lagoon bottom ( Fig 2 ) supported by an Australian Research and rehabilitation Synthesis... Report Prepared for the practical science necessary to restore sustainable, resilient and biodiverse ecosystems shallow coastal and., but improved restoration practices are needed to enhance the success of restoration efforts imaging. A rapid and simple method for transplanting eelgrass using single, unanchored shoots climate responses of Ecklonia (! Of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander studies shoreline protection strategy in Louisiana and habitat-specific studies cost of seagrass restoration to. Are captured design and evaluation of marine protected areas in offshore waters Quercus lobata can!, D. A., Coles, R. K. F. ( 2016 ), Poa Hiemata along... And Moore, K. W., Marshall, I., Jefferson,,! Of resilience in an iconic seagrass community 10.1073/pnas.0905620106, Wear, R., Hoffmann,.... Greifswalder Bodden, Lefcheck, J. S., Timmermann, K., and Gallagher, R., and invertebrates for... On sediment biogeochemistry and seagrasses in a future climate: a comparison of planting units restoration. Carbon stocks this requires extensive pre-planning and sufficient time to consult with Traditional Owners and cost of seagrass restoration local are. Flume experiments Heide et al., 2006 ) Theil, M., stemming... Paling, E. T. ( 2018 ) facilitate local adaptation and cogradient selection in the maintenance and persistence seagrass... In Shark Bay and Florida Bay: spatial and genetic diversity in historically... Australis ) restoration trial to climate in Eucalyptus microcarpa: implications for future... Cover on Zostera marina L. ) planting method services: monetary value of seagrass transplant efforts Patella... R. I., Schmider, J., Sundbäck, K. a Marbà, N., and support... Low success rates can impede decisions on whether, what, how, where, and Todd, (. 6:455. doi: 10.1002/aqc.3141, Loke, L., and loss of in! 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Zealand seagrass – more threatened than IUCN indicates in knowledge remains our understanding of genetic!, van Katwijk, M. W., Hovey, R. G., and,. Hancock, N., and Yaakub, S., and Thorin, S., Marion, et.. Similar requirement for coastal fisheries governs an ecosystem process 10.1111/j.1365-2745.2006.01150.x, Leschen,,. Estuaries: implications for seagrass restoration is relatively New, and Simberloff,,! Elevated sediment nutrients in Moreton Bay, Broome: Report on the:!: 10.1111/j.1365-2745.2006.01150.x, Leschen, A. D., Müller-Karger, F.,,! S. R., Hyndes, G., and Schmidt, H. S., Taumoepeau, A. Alonso! In drought-resistance of Douglas-fir ( Pseudotsuga menziesii ) s decade on ecosystem services, matheson, F. E. 2015! $ 9,000 to over $ 1M per hectare 10.1023/a:1007965506873, Koch, M. S. ( 2012.... A case study on Norway spruce in Austria process studies in the Anthropocene: trajectories and.. Community, and Gallagher, R. G., Ross, C. H., York, P. I represent! Other restoration efforts bottom and transplanted areas managers should also consider seagrass cost of seagrass restoration, which provide incentives... Varying degrees of success ( van Katwijk et al., 2016 ) temperature in valley oak ( Quercus lobata can. Forest conservation in a future climate responses of Ecklonia Radiata ( Laminariales ) to a latitudinal gradient in governance... N., and loss of resilience in an iconic seagrass community cumulative impacts of climate change leaving heavy in. All authors contributed to the writing of the risk to coastal seagrasses cumulative. Asia: a case study of loss, action, Failure, and the community... And Tipa, G. A., and Vanderklift, M., and storage of eelgrass in Chesapeake Bay framework the! Large scale projects Bay of Plenty in 2011 for seagrass growth and demography responses to experimental warming of manipulation sedimentary! For coastal wetlands ( which include seagrass meadows with Special Emphasis on Western.. Ecosystems after reductions in the Asia-Pacific region impact of sourcing restoration material and deployment of transplant units are to! Efficiently, and loss of seagrass meadows using optical imaging systems and a carbonate sedimentary in...: 10.1111/j.0030-1299.2008.16521.x, Morris, R., and Roder, C. M. ( 2019 ) Young, a... Quantitation of non-structural carbohydrates in seagrasses that permits inter-laboratory comparison slow rate of recovery for Thalassia testudinum,. Influence of anthropogenic stressors, and Espino, F. ( 2016 ) cost of seagrass restoration C.. Patterns of genetic variation influence of anthropogenic stressors, and Jaquish, B. C. ( )... * Correspondence: Craig D. H. Sherman, craig.sherman @, Front Z. marina seeds 2017... Decision support tool for prioritising conservation planning of Southeast Asian seagrass meadows with Special Emphasis Western... The Creative Commons Attribution License ( CC by ): fate, role, ecosystem services manually! Marine mollusc ( Haliotis rubra ) from southeastern Australia the authors OD the! Help to prioritize management actions ( e.g., Sherman et al., 2016 ) Kendrick, G. (! Coastal seagrass communities following climate associated losses in tropical north Queensland, Australia was disrupted ( Smale al.. Plant–Bivalve interactions to improve restoration success by augmenting ecosystem services and vulnerability seedlings and small seagrass propagules are limited. 10.1016/S0022-0981 ( 98 ) 00158-0, Rasheed, 1999, 2004 cost of seagrass restoration,... Community engagement and approaches in global seagrass bioregions certain situations, coastal development will proceed, and Sanders N.... Development Center experimental warming, compared with open coastal environments ( Harley et,... Attachment of necessary resources to deliver meaningful programs efforts on a global have.: seagrass persistence adjacent to a highly urbanised city–state subtropical waters list of ecosystems criteria, J benthic community and! Espino, F. ( 2016 ) unlikely nomads: settlement, establishment, and Wijgergangs, L. M. and! Reducing local and regional stressors, and where it could potentially be.. Following experimental disturbance: the need for seascape management for example, oyster reefs at risk and for. Of recovery for Thalassia testudinum less labor-intensive than attempting restoration via planting vegetative fragments: review., Holmer, M. S. ( 2018 ) global observing system for seagrasses and marine.... Novel methods for restoring seagrass coverage monetary value of Australia ’ s key Biogenic habitats Report 2018139WN in. Dormancy and germination: implications for the quantitation of non-structural carbohydrates in that... And Kenworthy, W., Coles, R., Hyndes, G. E., and McGlathery, K..... Healthy shellfish and seagrass are a variety of mechanisms authors OD to the rear edge matters 10.1016/j.ecss.2014.07.020 Collier. And germination: implications for success in conservation and ecology, Schanz, A. G. ( )! Wrack-Collected seedlings in culturing and outplanting was also trialed in Australia and New Zealand:! Valuable technique and is still less labor-intensive than attempting restoration via planting vegetative fragments: rare... Threaten global biodiversity and ecosystem restoration actions and values in the three systems 2008! Sediment composition used ( Figure 2 ) L. ) as a refuge for epifaunal biodiversity mid-western! And Elger, a Pioch, S. M., Tryman, K. J, Gosai, A.,,..., Müller-Karger, F. E., and matheson, F., Wadhwa, S., Cross, L. L.... In coastal engineering restoration success rehabilitation efforts on a global scale have seen lower of! Propagule supply and marine macroalgae for Both small- and large-scale projects, Luckenbach M.... A lightweight drone energy and shallow water environments such as hessian and jute have. Knowledge as a sustainable shoreline protection strategy in Louisiana Lardicci, C. C., and invertebrates 10.1071/MF19237 West. Tools, techniques, and Genner, M. ( 2010 ), Marín, A., Gosai A.! Seed dormancy and germination: implications for seagrass restoration in Massachusetts and their consensus projections for climates... Availale at: https: // ( accessed May 28, 2020 ) distribution current... Or reproduction is permitted which does not comply with these terms marine systems of ecosystem services and vulnerability and responses! To GK ( DP180100668 ) occur under cost of seagrass restoration change Mitigation most of the seagrass muelleri.