The territory's highest point is Tai Mo Shan, 957 metres (3,140 ft) above sea level. "To restore calm in Hong Kong, try democracy", Guidelines on the Legislative Council Election 2016, LegCo and DC Member Political Affiliations 2017, "Legislation Summary: Hong Kong National Security Law", Hong Kong Special Administrative Region Passports Ordinance, Constitution of the People's Republic of China, United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees, "List of Treaties in Force and Applicable to the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region", "Ireland suspends its extradition treaty with Hong Kong", "Trump ends preferential economic treatment for Hong Kong", "Meanings of Right of Abode and Other Terms", Immigration Department, "New ways to help Hong Kong's human trafficking victims", "Human trafficking in Hong Kong: hidden in plain sight", "Fed up with human trafficking, Hong Kong migrant workers hold vigil demanding justice", "Hong Kong must lead the fight against human trafficking, rather than just do the bare minimum", "Harsh Penalties, Vaguely Defined Crimes: Hong Kong's Security Law Explained", "Hong Kong National Security Law Promulgated, Came into Effect June 30, 2020", "UK says China's security law is serious violation of Hong Kong treaty", "Hong Kong pro-democracy politicians arrested", "Land Use in Hong Kong 2017", Planning Department, "The Natural Environment, Plants & Animals in Hong Kong", "Extreme Values and Dates of Occurrence of Extremes of Meteorological Elements between 1884 and 1939 and 1947–2017 for Hong Kong", "Monthly Meteorological Normals for Hong Kong", "Extreme Values and Dates of Occurrence of Extremes of Meteorological Elements between 1884-1939 and 1947-2017 for Hong Kong", Standing Committee Interpretation Concerning Implementation of Chinese Nationality Law in Hong Kong, Developing a Supplementary Guide to the Chinese Language Curriculum for Non-Chinese Speaking Students 2008, "Hong Kong ranked world's freest economy for 18th consecutive year", "Mainland and Hong Kong Closer Economic Partnership Arrangement (CEPA)", "Hong Kong Special Administrative Region and Macao Special Administrative Region Closer Economic Partnership Arrangement (HK-Macao CEPA)", House of Commons Foreign Affairs Committee Tenth Report 2015, "Despite worldwide changes, multinationals focus on mobile workforces to support career growth and ensure competitiveness", NY/NJ Port Authority Airport Traffic 2017, "Ferry Services to Macau and the Mainland Ports", "HKU POP releases survey on Hong Kong people's ethnic identity and the 2018 review and 2019 forecast survey", Women and Men in Hong Kong Key Statistics 2017, The Hong Kong Polytechnic University Ordinance, The Education University of Hong Kong Ordinance, The Open University of Hong Kong Ordinance.  Nuclear families are the most common households, although multi-generational and extended families are not unusual. These schools are subject to the curriculum guidelines as provided by the Education Bureau.  Hong Kong was transferred to China on 1 July 1997, after 156 years of British rule. Africa Asia Aus & Pacific Europe Latin America N America S America Mid East. Hong Kong averages 1,709 hours of sunshine per year; the highest and lowest recorded temperatures at the Hong Kong Observatory are 36.6 °C (97.9 °F) on 22 August 2017 and 0.0 °C (32.0 °F) on 18 January 1893. Mainland firms represent over half of the Hang Seng Index value, up from five per cent in 1997.  Ferries also serve outlying islands inaccessible by other means.  After more than a year of further hostilities, Hong Kong Island was formally ceded to the United Kingdom in the 1842 Treaty of Nanking.  The territory's largest export markets are mainland China and the United States.  The Octopus card, a contactless smart payment card, is widely accepted on railways, buses and ferries, and can be used for payment in most retail stores. July is the hottest month in Hong Kong with an average temperature of 29°C (84°F) and the coldest is January at 16°C (61°F) with the most daily sunshine hours at 7 in August.  TVB, Hong Kong's dominant television network, has an 80 per cent viewer share.  Lower than that of other developed economies, the rate is due to the influx of refugees from mainland China during the post-war colonial era. Local publications are often politically affiliated, with pro-Beijing or pro-democracy sympathies. , The simplified name Hong Kong was frequently used by 1810. Aberdeen was an initial point of contact between British sailors and local fishermen.  Although Hong Kong's economy has ranked at the top of the Heritage Foundation's economic freedom index since 1995, the territory has a relatively high level of income disparity. Home ; Asia; Hong Kong; Hong Kong; Hong Kong Sea Temperature (Today) Nov 2020. , Among the religious population, the traditional "three teachings" of China, Buddhism, Confucianism, and Taoism, have the most adherents (20 per cent), and are followed by Christianity (12 per cent) and Islam (4 per cent). , Hong Kong developed into a filmmaking hub during the late 1940s as a wave of Shanghai filmmakers migrated to the territory, and these movie veterans helped rebuild the colony's entertainment industry over the next decade.  Pay TV services operated by Cable TV Hong Kong and PCCW offer hundreds of additional channels and cater to a variety of audiences. The minimum temperature will be about 28 degrees.  Although median household income steadily increased during the decade to 2016, the wage gap remained high; the 90th percentile of earners receive 41 per cent of all income. The University of Hong Kong was founded as the city's first institute of higher education during the early colonial period in 1911.  Hong Kong became the first of the Four Asian Tiger economies to industrialise during the 1950s.  Agricultural activity is 0.1% of GDP, and consists of growing premium food and flower varieties.  Most migrants of that era fled poverty and war, reflected in the prevailing attitude toward wealth; Hongkongers tend to link self-image and decision-making to material benefits. And how should we best guess crowd size?  The highest and lowest recorded temperatures in all of Hong Kong are 39.0 °C (102 °F) at Wetland Park on 22 August 2017, and −6.0 °C (21.2 °F) at Tai Mo Shan on 24 January 2016. Can It Learn to Grow? Traditional Chinese values emphasising family and education blend with Western ideals, including economic liberty and the rule of law.  Portuguese merchants established a trading post called Tamão in Hong Kong waters and began regular trade with southern China.  Discrepancies in the electoral registry and disqualification of elected legislators after the 2016 Legislative Council elections and enforcement of national law in the West Kowloon high-speed railway station raised further concerns about the region's autonomy. Although they live and work in Hong Kong, these workers are not treated as ordinary residents and are ineligible for right of abode in the territory. Furthermore, the State Council may enforce national law in the region under specific circumstances. The Census and Statistics Department estimated Hong Kong's population at 7,482,500 in mid-2019. Rapid economic improvement during the 1850s attracted foreign investment, as potential stakeholders became more confident in Hong Kong's future. The MTR operates its Light Rail system, serving the northwestern New Territories. The first modern competition was organised in 1976, and overseas teams began competing in the first international race in 1993.  The Central and Western District has an extensive system of escalators and moving pavements, including the Mid-Levels escalator (the world's longest outdoor covered escalator system). , The Joint Declaration guarantees the Basic Law for 50 years after the transfer of sovereignty.  When there is snowfall, which is extremely rare, it is usually at high elevations. It broke the previous record of 33.2°C on 7th June.  With a daily ridership of over five million, the system serves 41 per cent of all public transit passengers in the city and has an on-time rate of 99.9 per cent. , The Star Ferry operates two lines across Victoria Harbour for its 53,000 daily passengers.  The University of Hong Kong was established in 1911 as the territory's first institution of higher education. Portugal acquired a permanent lease for Macau in 1557. , Undeveloped terrain is hilly to mountainous, with very little flat land, and consists mostly of grassland, woodland, shrubland, or farmland.  The United Kingdom considers the law to be a serious violation of the Joint Declaration.  Vehicle traffic is extremely congested in urban areas, exacerbated by limited space to expand roads and an increasing number of vehicles. Africa Asia Aus & Pacific Europe Latin America N America S America Mid East. The Qing surrendered early in the war and ceded Hong Kong Island in the Convention of Chuenpi. During the year, Hong Kong recorded only nine cold … The remaining population purport mixed identities, 23 per cent as "Hongkonger in China" and 12 per cent as "Chinese in Hong Kong". Presentation PDF Available. Dishes include congee, cha siu bao, siu yuk, egg tarts, and mango pudding. Common cha chaan teng menu items include macaroni in soup, deep-fried French toast, and Hong Kong-style milk tea. Conditions on the island improved during the Taiping Rebellion in the 1850s, when many Chinese refugees, including wealthy merchants, fled mainland turbulence and settled in the colony. The predominant language is Cantonese, a variety of Chinese originating in Guangdong.  The rest is from other imports, including nuclear energy generated on the mainland. , The International Commerce Centre and Two International Finance Centre are the tallest buildings in Hong Kong and among the tallest in the Asia-Pacific region. The territory's 2,755 km2 (1,064 sq mi) area consists of Hong Kong Island, the Kowloon Peninsula, the New Territories, Lantau Island, and over 200 other islands.  Chinese companies have expanded their economic presence in the territory since the transfer of sovereignty. SEE: The Week in Cartoons for July 22-26 ]  Traditional Chinese characters are used in writing, rather than the simplified characters used on the mainland.  Children are required to attend school from the age of six until completion of secondary education, generally at age 18.  Hong Kong athletes have won 126 medals at the Paralympic Games and 17 at the Commonwealth Games. This page includes a chart with historical data for Hong Kong Temperature.  Urban development is concentrated on the Kowloon Peninsula, Hong Kong Island, and in new towns throughout the New Territories. City-Data Forum > General Forums > Weather: What will the highest temperature recorded in Hong Kong in 2014 be? , Traditional Chinese family values, including family honour, filial piety, and a preference for sons, are prevalent. Sunny intervals and isolated thunderstorms are forecasted tomorrow. Hong Kong became a colony of the British Empire after the Qing Empire ceded Hong Kong Island at the end of the First Opium War in 1842.  Over half a million people left the territory during the peak migration period, from 1987 to 1996.  Most private recreational aviation traffic flies through Shek Kong Airfield, under the supervision of the Hong Kong Aviation Club. The commissioner destroyed opium stockpiles and halted all foreign trade, triggering a British military response and the First Opium War. The city has hosted a number of major sporting events, including the 2009 East Asian Games, the 2008 Summer Olympics equestrian events, and the 2007 Premier League Asia Trophy.  Slightly over half the population (53.2 per cent) speaks English, the other official language; 4.3 per cent are native speakers, and 48.9 per cent speak English as a second language. Economic and infrastructure integration with China has increased significantly since the 1978 start of market liberalisation on the mainland.  The whole territory was transferred to China in 1997. Monthly average temperatures, rainfall, snow days, and record high and low temperatures msn back to msn home weather records and averages powered by Microsoft News , Early Hong Kong settlers were a semi-coastal people who migrated from inland and brought knowledge of rice cultivation.  The Sino-British Joint Declaration provided for economic and administrative continuity through the transfer of sovereignty, resulting in an executive-led governing system largely inherited from the territory's history as a British colony.  By the 1960s, the city was well known to overseas audiences through films such as The World of Suzie Wong.  The Imperial Japanese Army attacked Hong Kong on 8 December 1941, the same morning as its attack on Pearl Harbor.  Single-family detached homes are extremely rare and generally only found in outlying areas.  Examples include Lui Seng Chun, the Blue House in Wan Chai, and the Shanghai Street shophouses in Mong Kok. With over 7.5 million residents of various nationalities[d] in a 1,104-square-kilometre (426 sq mi) territory, Hong Kong is one of the most densely populated places in the world.  Three forms of gambling are legal in Hong Kong: lotteries and betting on horse racing and football. The Hong Kong Chinese Orchestra, composed of classical Chinese instruments, is the leading Chinese ensemble and plays a significant role in promoting traditional music in the community.  There are five daily meals: breakfast, lunch, afternoon tea, dinner, and siu yeh. Luckily, buildings, transport, and even some walkways are air-conditioned, but it does require staying inside. The best month to swim in the sea is in July when the average sea temperature is 29.1°C (84°F). Although the traders were expelled after military clashes in the 1520s, Portuguese-Chinese trade relations were re-established by 1549. At the height of the local movie industry in the early 1990s, over 400 films were produced each year; since then, industry momentum shifted to mainland China. Hong Kong on Saturday recorded its hottest day since authorities began taking temperature readings 130 years ago, due to the influence of a nearby typhoon. Legal experts split on when Hong Kong should debate its future", "Who goes there? , Hong Kong International Airport is the territory's primary airport.  While the economy transitioned to a service basis during the 1980s, late colonial governments introduced interventionist policies.  Although European demand for Chinese commodities like tea, silk, and porcelain was high, Chinese interest in European manufactured goods was insignificant, so that Chinese goods could only be bought with precious metals. , The government maintains a policy of "mother tongue instruction"; most schools use Cantonese as the medium of instruction, with written education in both Chinese and English.  In June 2019, mass protests erupted in response to a proposed extradition amendment bill permitting extradition of fugitives to mainland China. Hong Kong Temperature Yesterday.  The United States ended its preferential economic and trade treatment of Hong Kong in July, because it was no longer able to distinguish Hong Kong as a separate entity from Communist China.  Hong Kong is home to the second-highest number of billionaires of any city in the world, the highest number of billionaires of any city in Asia, and the largest concentration of ultra high-net-worth individuals of any city in the world. , Administrative infrastructure was quickly built by early 1842, but piracy, disease, and hostile Qing policies initially prevented the government from attracting commerce. , Hong Kong is a special administrative region of China, with executive, legislative, and judicial powers devolved from the national government.  Although the source of the romanised name is unknown, it is generally believed to be an early phonetic rendering of the Cantonese pronunciation hēung góng.  Connecting service to the national high-speed rail system is provided at West Kowloon railway station.  Hong Kong has a major capitalist service economy characterised by low taxation and free trade, and its currency, the Hong Kong dollar, is the eighth most traded currency in the world. Evolving from Shanghai-style shidaiqu, it is also influenced by Cantonese opera and Western pop. Smaller kai-to boats serve the most remote coastal settlements.  Hong Kong is a gateway for foreign direct investment in China, giving investors open access to mainland Chinese markets through direct links with the Shanghai and Shenzhen stock exchanges. Winters are mild and usually sunny at the beginning, becoming cloudy towards February; an occasional cold front brings strong, cooling winds from the north.  Although the Chairman of the Central Military Commission is supreme commander of the armed forces, the regional government may request assistance from the garrison.  Much of this is built on reclaimed land; 70 km2 (27 sq mi) (six per cent of the total land or about 25 per cent of developed space in the territory) is reclaimed from the sea.  More than 18,000 taxicabs, easily identifiable by their bright colour, are licensed to carry riders in the territory.  Renewable sources account for a negligible amount of energy generated for the territory. Average temperature at Yuen Long Park, Kowloon City and Sai Kung is around 34.3°C making them the hottest areas in Hong Kong today.  The Qin dynasty incorporated the Hong Kong area into China for the first time in 214 BCE, after conquering the indigenous Baiyue. “It is the coldest day since 1957. The number of films produced annually has declined to about 60 in 2017. Maximum temperature yesterday: 77 °F (at 3:00 pm) Minimum temperature yesterday: 70 °F (at 5:30 am) Average temperature yesterday: 73 °F.  Hong Kong was occupied by Japan for almost four years before Britain resumed control on 30 August 1945. Hong Kong is on China's southern coast, 60 km (37 mi) east of Macau, on the east side of the mouth of the Pearl River estuary. Realist evaluation of PPPs in Hong Kong", A List of Licensed Broadcasting Services in Hong Kong, Adaptation of Laws Programme – Guiding Principles and Guideline Glossary of Terms, Port Authority of New York and New Jersey, Akamai's State of the Internet – Q1 2017 Report, The Hongkong and Shanghai Banking Corporation, Béthanie – The Academy's Landmark Heritage Campus, Developing a Supplementary Guide to the Chinese Language Curriculum for Non-Chinese Speaking Students, Economic development: Statistical Highlights, The UK's relations with Hong Kong: 30 years after the Joint Declaration, Written evidence from Foreign and Commonwealth Office, Guidelines on the Legislative Council Election, Hong Kong Energy Statistics – 2016 Annual Report, Human Development Indices and Indicators – Statistical Update 2018, The Profitability of the Banking Sector in Hong Kong, List of Political Affiliations of LegCo Members and DC Members, Literacy Rates Continue to Rise from One Generation to the Next, A Century of Railway Development – The Hong Kong Story, Grant to the Hong Kong Shue Yan University for Establishing a General Development Fund, "List of Historical Buildings Declared as Monuments from 1997 to 2006", Registration and Licensing of Vehicles by Class of Vehicles, Follow-ups on the Service Suspension of Tseung Kwan O Line and Part of Kwun Tong Line on 16 December 2013, and Report on Subsequent Major Incidents on East Rail Line and Light Rail, Report of the Task Force on Population Policy, Thematic Report: Household Income Distribution in Hong Kong, Report on Study of Road Traffic Congestion in Hong Kong, Technical Legislative Amendments on Traffic Arrangements for the Hong Kong-Zhuhai-Macao Bridge, Triennial Central Bank Survey: Foreign exchange turnover in April 2016, Usage of Information Technology and the Internet by Hong Kong Residents, 2000 to 2016, Women and Men in Hong Kong Key Statistics, Final Report for Provision of Service for Fine Particulate Matter (PM, "Special Report: The mainland's colonisation of the Hong Kong economy", "Hong Kong ban on pro-independence candidates sparks backlash", "Hong Kong villagers using solar energy to help power their homes – and show its potential as a source of electricity for city", "The case for extending Hong Kong's 2047 deadline", "Too soon to talk about 2047? , Twenty-two political parties had representatives elected to the Legislative Council in the 2016 election. [e], Originally a sparsely populated area of farming and fishing villages, the territory has become one of the world's most significant financial centres and commercial ports.  Small-scale wind-power sources have been developed, and a small number of private homes have installed solar panels.  These parties have aligned themselves into three ideological groups: the pro-Beijing camp (the current government), the pro-democracy camp, and localist groups.  Toilets flush with seawater, greatly reducing freshwater use.. , The Peak Tram, Hong Kong's first public transport system, has provided funicular rail transport between Central and Victoria Peak since 1888. , Coordinates: 22°18′N 114°12′E / 22.3°N 114.2°E / 22.3; 114.2, Special administrative region in People's Republic of China, China Urban Construction Statistical Yearbook 2017 Urban Population and Urban Temporary Population, Hong Kong Special Administrative Region of the People's Republic of China, Political reforms and sociopolitical issues, No specific variety of Chinese is official in the territory.  By the end of this war, Hong Kong had evolved from a transient colonial outpost into a major entrepôt.  Access to media and information over the Internet is not subject to mainland Chinese regulations, including the Great Firewall. , The central government and Ministry of Foreign Affairs handle diplomatic matters, but Hong Kong retains the ability to maintain separate economic and cultural relations with foreign nations.  It is the eighth-busiest airport by passenger traffic, and handles the most air-cargo traffic in the world. , Hong Kong generates most of its electricity locally.  The region was consolidated under the Nanyue kingdom (a predecessor state of Vietnam) after the Qin collapse and recaptured by China after the Han conquest.  35 are directly elected from geographical constituencies and 35 represent functional constituencies (FC). Largest cities or municipalities in the People's Republic of China, [hœ́ːŋ.kɔ̌ːŋ tɐ̀k̚.pìːt̚ hɐ̏ŋ.tsēŋ.kʰɵ́y], [hœ̂ːŋ.kɔ̌ːŋ tɐ̀k̚.pìːt̚ hɐ̏ŋ.tsēŋ.kʰɵ́y], the Hongkong and Shanghai Banking Corporation, Independent Commission Against Corruption, Chinese People's Political Consultative Conference, Office for Safeguarding National Security of the CPG in the HKSAR, Standing Committee of the National People's Congress, Chairman of the Central Military Commission, 14th most popular destination for international tourists, Hong Kong Strategic Route and Exit Number System, eighth-busiest airport by passenger traffic, Hong Kong University of Science and Technology, Hong Kong-Zhuhai-Macao Bridge Hong Kong Link Road, Legislative Council Disclaimer and Copyright Notice, "Survey and Mapping Office – Circulars and Publications", "Population - Overview | Census and Statistics Department", "World Economic Outlook Database, October 2020", UN Human Development Indices and Indicators 2018, Technical Legislative Amendments on Traffic Arrangements for the Hong Kong-Zhuhai-Macao Bridge 2017, "World's Richest Cities: The Top 10 Cities Billionaires Call Home", "Country Comparison: GDP (Purchasing Power Parity)", Council on Tall Buildings and Urban Habitat, "Aquilaria sinensis and origin of the name of Hong Kong", "The Petrology of the Wong Tei Tung Stone Tool Manufacturing Site, Sham Chung, Hong Kong Sar, China", "Pro-China Party Appears Big Loser in Hong Kong Election".  The Legislative Council became a fully elected legislature for the first time in 1995 and extensively expanded its functions and organisations throughout the last years of the colonial rule.  The city's location allowed it to establish a transportation and logistics infrastructure which includes the world's seventh-busiest container port and the busiest airport for international cargo.  Dim sum, as part of yum cha (brunch), is a dining-out tradition with family and friends. 29th June 2019 – (Hong Kong) At 3pm today, Hong Kong Observatory recorded the highest temperature of 33.3°C in 2019. PDF | An updated analysis of Hong Kong's temperature, rainfall and sea-level record | Find, read and cite all the research you need on ResearchGate .  A similar economic partnership with Macau details the liberalisation of trade between the special administrative regions. To reduce the trade imbalance, the British sold large amounts of Indian opium to China. Temperatures were expected to peak Thursday and Paris saw a high of 108.7 degrees, shattering the previous record high of 104.7 degrees in 1947. During the 1980s, films such as A Better Tomorrow, As Tears Go By, and Zu Warriors from the Magic Mountain expanded global interest beyond martial arts films; locally made gangster films, romantic dramas, and supernatural fantasies became popular. It broke the previous record of 33.2°C on 7th June. The city also experienced a record-breaking 41 hot nights, when temperatures remained above 28 degrees Celsius. , Tong lau, mixed-use tenement buildings constructed during the colonial era, blended southern Chinese architectural styles with European influences. , Income inequality has risen since the transfer of sovereignty, as the region's ageing population has gradually added to the number of nonworking people.  The territory's minimal taxation, common law system, and civil service attract overseas corporations wishing to establish a presence in Asia.  This was followed by the 2003 SARS epidemic, during which the territory experienced its most serious economic downturn. The hot weather is expected to continue tomorrow. Poultry and seafood are commonly sold live at wet markets, and ingredients are used as quickly as possible. , In October 2020, Hong Kong authorities arrested seven pro-democracy politicians over tussles with pro-Beijing politicians during the Legislative Council in May.  Although the vast majority of the population is ethnically Chinese, Hong Kong has developed a distinct identity. It compares with the July 30 record of 149.  Employment vacancies and public service appointments frequently have language requirements which minority job seekers do not meet, and language education resources remain inadequate for Chinese learners.  Some corporations founded during the early colonial era still keep this name, including Hongkong Land, Hongkong Electric Company, Hongkong and Shanghai Hotels and the Hongkong and Shanghai Banking Corporation (HSBC). A variety of Chinese-language newspapers are published daily; the most prominent are Ming Pao, Oriental Daily News, and Apple Daily.  Colonial governments had little industrial policy, and implemented almost no trade controls. , The territory's jurisdictional independence is most apparent in its immigration and taxation policies. Private schools subsidised under the Direct Subsidy Scheme and international schools fall outside of this system and may elect to use differing curricula and teach using other languages.  Diplomatic negotiations with China resulted in the 1984 Sino-British Joint Declaration, in which the United Kingdom agreed to transfer the colony in 1997 and China would guarantee Hong Kong's economic and political systems for 50 years after the transfer. , Comprehensive schools fall under three categories: public schools, which are government-run; subsidised schools, including government aid-and-grant schools; and private schools, often those run by religious organisations and that base admissions on academic merit. , Hong Kong is on China's southern coast, 60 km (37 mi) east of Macau, on the east side of the mouth of the Pearl River estuary. The Kangxi Emperor lifted the prohibition, allowing foreigners to enter Chinese ports in 1684. ", "Hong Kong topples New York as world's richest city", "China Resumes Control of Hong Kong, Concluding 156 Years of British Rule", "It's fade out for Hong Kong's film industry as China moves into the spotlight", "Hong Kong's Mile-Long Escalator System Elevates the Senses: A Stairway to Urban Heaven", "World's longest sea-crossing bridge opens between Hong Kong and China", "Hong Kong pro-democracy legislators disqualified from parliament", "Forgotten stories of the great escape to Hong Kong", "Top 10 Hong Kong skyscraper nicknames, from the Big Syringe to the Hong Kong Finger", "A Hong Kong court has disqualified two legislators who refused to take their oath "correctly, "Hong Kong's umbrella revolution – the Guardian briefing", "Hong Kong Imports Over 90% of Its Food. The territory diverged from the mainland due to its long period of colonial administration and a different pace of economic, social, and cultural development. Residents predominantly speak, For all government use, documents written using.  The Hong Kong Stock Exchange is the seventh-largest in the world, with a market capitalisation of HK$30.4 trillion (US$3.87 trillion) as of December 2018[update]. Hong Kong has a humid subtropical climate (Köppen Cwa), characteristic of southern China, despite being located south of the Tropic of Cancer.  Qing authorities established the Canton System in 1757 to regulate trade more strictly, restricting non-Russian ships to the port of Canton.