The spectacular Sir Francis Drake Bikeway (also known as the Cross Marin Trail) sits on the recycled roadbed of the former North Pacific Coast Railroad, which used to run from Larkspur to Cazadero. Marin County Transit District (Marin Transit) was formed by a vote of the people of Marin County in 1964 and was given the responsibility for … This outraged the Spanish ambassador who regarded Drake as nothing more than a pirate. The poop deck had two further cannons while a number of smaller cannons could be used where most required. He holds an MA in Political Philosophy and is the Publishing Director at AHE. At the southern tip of South America, the three remaining ships pressed on through the Straits of Magellan in August. The voyagers had been around the world, albeit not in a direct or even hurried manner, for two years and nine and a half months. Drake had Doughty put in the brig of the Swan. Drake made off with 25,000 gold pesos from the raid (the Spanish claimed losses of 200,000 pesos). Cite This Work License. Map of Francis Drake's Circumnavigation, 1577-80 CEby Continentalis (CC BY-SA). Drake was elected Mayor of Plymouth and Member of Parliament for Portsmouth. Learn More. In 1587 Sir Francis Drake sailed to Spain to fight the Spanish as it was thought that they were preparing a to invade England with a massive fleet. There was some trouble with a Thomas Doughty who had been made captain of the Mary but who then gave a speech questioning Drake’s plans and right to command. Francis Fletcher, the ship’s chaplain, who would later write an account of the voyage (The World Encompassed, published in 1628 CE), had told the crew the beaching was God’s punishment for Drake’s treatment of the mutineer Doughty. Last modified June 29, 2020. Books So, he anchored near present-day San Francisco and claimed the land around it. Sir Francis Drake is also famous for discovering the potato, tobacco and many spices that we use in our cooking. Drake presents Queen Elizabeth with manuscript with text the basis of which was later published as "Sir Francis Drake Revived." The map of my travels. It carried two disassembled pinnaces for close-to-shore work. The same men were appointed officers again but the point was clear: Drake was in command not the investors back in England. I started from Plymouth, England and I set sail for the New World to plunder Spanish ships and loot them of their gold. Routes Magellan sailed down the east coast of South America. The spot was exactly where Magellan on his circumnavigation had hanged a mutinous captain half a century before - the ruins of those gallows were still, ominously for Doughty, in plain view. Whilst assembling a Pinnace there Drake lost a man to Moorish raiders. Sign in|Recent Site Activity|Report Abuse|Print Page|Powered By Google Sites. The Ancient History Encyclopedia logo is a registered EU trademark. Drake then sailed on up the west coast of North America in search of the fabled Northwest Passage that was believed to provide an easy route to Asia. This license lets others remix, tweak, and build upon this content non-commercially, as long as they credit the author and license their new creations under the identical terms. Drake was hit near the eye by an arrow and made a lucky escape. Bibliography Spanish settlements like Valparaiso were then taken completely by surprise in December 1578 CE when an English warship showed up in Pacific waters. A very simple explanantion of who Sir Francis Drake was, and what he did with questions throughout. Kimpton Sir Francis Drake Hotel has completed a sweeping $11 million renovation. Drake had become Elizabeth’s favourite sea dog, a feeling that must have been mutual as the mariner gave his queen lavish gifts such as a gold crown embedded with five huge emeralds and a diamond-studded cross. Doughty chose the first (or the jury did, depending on the version of the story) and he was beheaded on 2 July 1578 CE. The voyage was organised as a joint-stock company where multiple backers agreed to accept any liability in the hope of receiving future profits proportional to the amount they had originally invested. In November, on the island of Mocha off the coast of Chile, a group of indigenous peoples attacked a number of the mariners when ashore. Drake was noted in his life for one daring feat after another; his greatest was his circumnavigation of the earth, the first after Magellan's. The English mariner, privateer, and explorer Francis Drake (c. 1540-1596 CE) made his circumnavigation of the world between 1577 and 1580 CE. The fleet traveled across the Atlantic and down the coast of South America. Another very useful acquisition was Spanish charts indicating the routes galleons took to cross the Pacific and reach Manila. Continue over the hill and onto the the I-580 on-ramp shoulder. It was small even for Elizabethan ships, weighing in at 150 tons (for comparison, Bligh’s HMS Bounty was 215 tons and Cook’s HMS Endeavour was 370 tons). There were an astonishing 13 chests of plate, 36 kilos (80 lbs) of gold, a mass of gemstones, and 26 tons of unworked silver. Ancient History Encyclopedia Limited is a non-profit company registered in the United Kingdom. More captures followed off the coast of Nicaragua, Guatemala, and Mexico, Drake often putting the crews ashore and adding rolls of fine silk and cases of Chinese porcelain to his already bulging hold. To reinforce this Drake dismissed all of his officers, who had been appointed by the expedition’s backers, and reappointed his own choices. Drake was one of the first British slave traders. The Famous Voyage: The Circumnavigation of the World, 1577-1580. The Straits were difficult to find and dangerous, but after getting through, heavy storms in September meant that the Marigold was wrecked and the Elizabeth sailed back to England. Cartwright, Mark. The jury of 40 men found the mutineer guilty and gave him three options: to be executed, marooned where they were or sent in chains back to England. He proceeded towards the north along the South American and Central American coast then Reaching the latitude of 40 degrees and failing to find any passage, Drake backtracked and anchored near what is today San Francisco in June. In October he reached the East Indies (Indonesia and Philippines) and took on board spices, ginger, pepper and six tons of valuable cloves from the Moluccas (aka Spice Islands) where, luckily enough for the English captain, the sultan was at war with the Portuguese. Map of Sir Francis Drake's circumnavigation of the globe! It took six days to relieve the Spanish of their riches and these weighed so much that Drake was obliged to jettison some of the Golden Hind’s ballast to make room. Drake had managed to pull his men together and get the expedition back on its right course. Some Rights Reserved (2009-2021) under Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike license unless otherwise noted. The ships passed through the Doldrums and crossed the equator. The estimated value of the loot was perhaps £600,000 (more than double the entire annual revenue of England), and the queen personally received a handsome £160,000. 2. Drake frequently used expert pilots when in unfamiliar coastal waters and the experienced Portuguese pilot Nuño da Silva (captured with the Mary) described the Golden Hind as: …very stout and very strong, with double sheathings…She is a French [style] ship well-fitted with good masts, tackle and good sails, and is a good sailor, answering the helm well. The message to Spain was clear: allow legitimate trade in the New World or face the privateers. He organized a water supply for Plymouth that served the city for 300 years. Drake then sailed on up the west coast of North America in search of the fabled Northwest Passage that was believed to provide an easy route to Asia. Map of Francis Drake's Circumnavigation, 1577-80 CE. Web. 4 of 6 This map, named the Mellon Map, from the late 1500s shows Sir Francis Drake's route as he sailed from Europe to Virginia and around South America. The expedition got off to the worst possible start when a storm damaged several of the ships and they were obliged to return to port only two weeks after setting off. 4. The ship grounded on a reef which necessitated Drake jettisoning six tons of cloves & a number of cannons to lighten the ship. Drake, provisioning his ship well for the months ahead, was then swept across the Pacific by the trade winds. Another survivor is Drake’s drum which is said to roll mysteriously whenever England is in danger. Sir Francis Drake, the World Encompassed, via Wikimedia Commons. After claiming the California coast for the Queen, Drake sailed across the Pacific and Indian oceans. "Francis Drake's Circumnavigation of the Globe." https://www.ancient.eu/article/1574/. Sign up for Kimpton Emails About Kimpton Hotels IHG® Rewards Club Social Responsibility Kimpton Blog: Life is Suite. After passing through the Strait of Magellan, they entered the Pacific Ocean and went north along the coast of Peru, ransacking towns along the way. Sir Frances Drake was one of the heroes of the defeat of the "Invincible" Armada, and the first captain to sail around the world. Only the second man to achieve this feat after the Portuguese explorer Ferdinand Magellan (c. 1480-1521 CE) did so in 1522 CE, Drake did not attempt any speed record and spent months along certain coastlines prowling for opportunities to add to the ever-growing hoard of loot down in the hold of his ship the Golden Hind. Learn more about Drake in this article. 1. Drake captured six warships and sunk another 31. However, if the queen knighted Drake and took from him a part of his gains - and queens do not deal in stolen goods -  then he could not have been acting as a pirate but as a representative of his monarch. This was especially so for his own cabin which was lined with oak and boasted a bunk, desk, chair, and chart table where the explorer tracked his course and made sketches and paintings of the sights and coastlines he came across. Ancient History Encyclopedia. Drake started in England and intended to pass through the Strait of Magellan, at the southern tip of South America, and then explore the waters of Panama. Doughty had been Hatton’s man and so it may be that the renaming of the ship was an attempt by Drake to signal continued good faith with his sponsor. Please note that content linked from this page may have different licensing terms. Retrieved from https://www.ancient.eu/article/1574/. The Cherokee can agree with Sir Francis Drake when he wrote about the herb garden, “A perfect garden planted with herbs, when trod upon gives the very air a delightful fragrance.” But to the Cherokee it meant even more – food and medicine. Sir Francis Drake carried out the second circumnavigation of the globe through a single expedition. In March 1580 CE the Golden Hind crossed the Indian Ocean. She is neither new, nor is her bottom covered with lead…She is staunch when sailing with the wind astern if it is not very strong, but in a sea which makes her labour she makes no little water. Facts about Francis Drake’s Role in Defeating the Spanish Armada. Drake’s luck changed in March 1573, a couple months after he first set off to raid the city of Panama. Another present was the now-famous Armada Jewel by Nicholas Hilliard in 1588 CE, a gold and gem-encrusted brooch carrying two portraits of the queen. Sir Francis Drake - Sir Francis Drake - Mayor of Plymouth: In the same year, 1581, Drake was made mayor of Plymouth, an office he fulfilled with the same thoroughness that he had shown in all other matters. Three ships were attacked and their cargoes looted; one of them, the Mary, was added to Drake’s small fleet. To reach the Pacific, Drake became the first Englishman to navigate the Straits of Magellan. "Francis Drake's Circumnavigation of the Globe." The idea to mount an expedition to explore what lay south of the equator and see if a great southern continent - ‘Terra Australis’ - did really exist was first touted by Richard Grenville (1542-1591 CE) in 1574 CE. We have also been recommended for educational use by the following publications: Ancient History Encyclopedia Foundation is a non-profit organization registered in Canada. Map - Sir Francis Drake. Secretly, the queen invested in the project and instructed Drake not only to explore new trade possibilities but also to take whatever treasure he came across from the Spanish and attack Spanish colonial settlements in South America. Towards the end of August, the sailors reached the Canary Islands and then made port at La Rochelle in western France. Please comment if you use as I'm doing teacher training and would appreciate the feedback. Each side of the ship could present seven cannons which could be withdrawn behind their hatches. At this crucial moment in the voyage, Drake called all his men ashore again and assured them he was absolutely in command. In 1591, he was knighted by Queen Elizabeth I for his amazing 3 year circumnavigation of the globe. Setting off again he sailed past the Canary Islands where the fleet captured three Spanish fishing vessels and three Portuguese caravels. 1592/93. Sir Francis Drake wrote that the potato was the staple food in Chile in 1577. In June, Drake rounded the Cape of Good Hope in southern Africa where rainstorms were gratefully received to refill the ship’s empty freshwater caskets. Sir Francis Drake (c. 1540 – 28 January 1596) was an English sea captain, privateer, naval officer, slaver, and explorer. Drake would brook no such dissent of his command and so excommunicated the chaplain in his capacity as captain and made Fletcher wear a sign around his neck stating: ‘Francis Fletcher, the falsest knave that liveth’. Cartwright, M. (2020, June 29). Francis Drake by Hilliardby Nicholas Hilliard (Public Domain). Sir Francis Drake Hotel — San Francisco, California Hyatt Regency Jacksonville Riverfront — Jacksonville, Florida Marriott Residence Inn — Charleston, South Carolina Marriott Spring Hill Suites — Charleston, South Carolina Marriott Residence Inn — Columbia, South Carolina Marriott Courtyard — … Back on the familiar home stretch, Drake arrived at Plymouth on 26 September 1580 CE. This included his incursion into the Pacific Ocean, until then an area of exclusive Spanish interest, and his claim to New Albion for England, an area in what is now the American state of California. Drake even had one man beheaded for leading a mutiny. The sea dogs: Privateers, plunder and piracy in the Elizabethan Age, Elizabeth's Sea Dogs: How the English Became the Scourge of the Seas, On Wilder Seas: The Woman on the Golden Hind, Francis Drake's Circumnavigation of the Globe, Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike. He travelled up the west coast of South America, plundering Spanish ports. Drake's backers would not be disappointed. The chaplain was forgiven and reinstated in his duties a few days later. Sir Francis Drake's route circumnavigated the Earth from England to Africa then to South America through the Straits of Magellan. Opportunity to draw on Sir Francis' route around the world. Cartwright, Mark. Mark is a history writer based in Italy. Drake also had a small library which included a record of Magellan’s circumnavigation. For a segment of Marinites whose focus is on racial and cultural wrongs, it’s also the year of Sir Francis Drake. Much more important at the time than the geographical achievement was the treasure Drake had been relentlessly filling his ship with along the way. However, harsh cold temperatures caused him to turn back. Sir Francis Drake Boulevard, which runs for more than 40 miles through Marin County, could end up with a patchwork of different names. This was the Cape Horn route which was eventually discovered in 1616. Drake left a metal plaque commemorating his landing on 17 June 1579 CE. No precise drawings of the Golden Hind galleon survive and its design - realised in scale models and one full-size replica - has been surmised from descriptions. On arrival, the queen invited Drake to an audience at Richmond Palace and told him to bring some choice samples of his fabulous treasure. Reaching the latitude of 40 degrees and failing to find any passage, Drake backtracked and anchored near what is today San Francisco in June. On 4 April 1581 CE, Elizabeth boarded the Golden Hind docked at Deptford on the Thames and, pleased with the treasures he had captured and the glory of his navigational achievements, knighted Drake on its decks. Further, all men would now perform the same duties, regardless of rank. 3. 450 Powell Street San Francisco, CA 94102 Reservations: 800.795.7129 Hotel: 415.392.7755 Fax: 415.391.8719. For only $5 per month you can become a member and support our mission to engage people with cultural heritage and to improve history education worldwide. There he claimed the land for his queen, naming it ‘New Albion’ (a claim never subsequently pursued). Much of his reputation was derived from legend, however, as his life was dedicated to self-aggrandizement. Look at the " Challenges Faced" page to find out more. Ancient History Encyclopedia. Drake had captured this floating Aladdin’s Cave by making the Golden Hind appear a slow ship. Now called Drake’s Bay, the mariners landed and established friendly relations with the indigenous peoples there. In lieu of flowers, Elaine requested that donations be made to Hospice by the Bay, 17 East Sir Francis Drake Blvd., Larkspur, California 94938 415-526-5500, HospiceByTheBay.org. It was touch and go if the ship would make it, but a heightening tide and strong wind lifted the Golden Hind to safety. All but one of Drake's ships sank in the voyage around the world. The extraordinary voyage included battles in Spanish colonial settlements, the capture of treasure ships, and a near-mutiny as well as the usual maritime hazards of storms, scurvy, and running aground on coral reefs. Thunder Go North: The Hunt for Sir Francis Drake's Fair and Good Bay Thunder Go North unravels the mysteries surrounding Drake’s famous voyage and summer sojourn in this bay. He sailed from Plymouth on Dec. 13, 1577. ... undertaking voyages as early as 1560 with his … Map of Drake's and Cavendish's Circumnavigations of the Globe, The Capture of Cacafuego by the Golden Hind. A Model of the Golden Hindby Alex Butterfield (CC BY). They finally left Plymouth on 13 December heading South into the Atlantic, but poor winds led them to their first port of call two weeks later at Mogador off Morocco. This plaque was ‘rediscovered’ in 1936 CE but chemical analysis revealed it to be a fake. Map of Drake's and Cavendish's Circumnavigations of the Globeby Jodocus Hondius (Public Domain). Drake sailed the Golden Hind up the west coast of South America. It was when he reached calmer Pacific waters that Drake renamed the Pelican the Golden Hind. The fleet set off for a second time on 13 December and sailed down the coast of northwest Africa and then across the Atlantic route via the Cape Verde Islands. eastbound from larkspur VIA Sir francis drake blvd. The ship grounded on a reef in January which necessitated Drake jettisoning the six tons of cloves and a number of cannons to lighten the ship. Around 30.5 metres (100 ft.) in length and with a 5.5-metre (18 ft.) beam, the draught when fully loaded was almost 4 metres (13 ft.). The queen gave gifts in return, notably the silver cup in the form of a globe which encased a coconut Drake had brought back from his voyage. Surviving today from this cabin is the captain’s sea chest, a large rectangular box covered in leather and with ships painted on the inside of the lid. Ancient History Encyclopedia, 29 Jun 2020. Related Content Grenville had failed to find backing for his plan as the search for the Northwest Passage took precedence, but in 1577 CE, Elizabeth turned to Drake for just such a southern voyage. In November 1577 CE Drake set off with 164 men on what would turn out to be an extraordinary voyage; 60 of the men would never see England again. Following the South American expedition, Drake decided to head north to find a way through the Arctic Ocean. Next, on 1 March 1579 CE, he took the greatest prize of the entire voyage, the Nuestra Senora de la Concepćion (aka Cacafuego) off the coast of Peru with its massive cargo of silver intended for Panama. An inventory of the treasure brought back, signed by Drake on 5 November 1580 CE, survives today in the archives of the Tower of London. Head east on the multi-use pathway that runs along the south side of Sir Francis Drake Blvd. Only the nine officers had a cabin and most of the crew slept on the gun deck. He acquired, too, a coat of arms (a ship atop a globe with two silver stars intersected by a wavy horizontal line or fess). In … The Pelican was obliged to continue the expedition alone. For this task, Drake was given command of a fleet of five ships: Mid-voyage the Pelican, Drake’s flagship, would be renamed the Golden Hind in honour of the expedition’s principal patron, Sir Christopher Hatton, who had that device on his family coat of arms. Ancient History Encyclopedia. Routes Taken and Maps. Title page from The English hero, or, Sir Francis Drake Revived, 1695. His special interests include pottery, architecture, world mythology and discovering the ideas that all civilizations share in common. The Golden Hind had a crew of 90 men. Several poorly armed treasure ships were subsequently captured in the harbour of Callao, the port of Lima. Extensive repairs were made to the ship north of Java, and in early 1580 CE, they navigated through the treacherous islands and reefs of Indonesia. He reached the Atlantic by sailing around the tip of Africa. Drake sailed up the Atlantic coast of that continent to reach Sierra Leone in July, again desperately short of freshwater. His expedition inaugurated an era of conflict with the Spanish on the western coast of the Americas, an are… A Replica of the Golden Hindby Murgatroyd49 (CC BY-SA). Buy Caution: this route includes a busy, high-speed roadway. Drake started in England and intended to pass through the Strait of Magellan, at the southern tip of South America, and then explore the waters of Panama. 2 Archeological evidence of the potato in native life exists in the form of their freeze-dried remains in underground storage containers in the Andes, similar to the … He was also was the first person from Europe to discover America and claimed if for the Queen of England Elizabeth I His official motto became Sic Parvis Magna or ‘Greatness from Small Beginnings’. Submitted by Mark Cartwright, published on 29 June 2020 under the following license: Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike. A map shows the route that Sir Francis Drake took on his trip around the world in 1577. 12 Jan 2021. Ancient History Encyclopedia Foundation is a non-profit organization. I set sailed south once crossing the Atlantic Ocean and crossed the Strait of Magellan. Much … About Marin Transit. The Christopher, Swan, and Mary would all be abandoned by August as too unseaworthy to make the voyage into the Pacific Ocean. Drake is best known for his circumnavigation of the world in a single expedition, from 1577 to 1580. Francis Drake's Circumnavigation of the Globe. Rare Book and Special Collections Division. Drake ensured his ship was well-fitted for relative comfort and had good furniture. Continue on the shoulder of Sir Francis Drake Blvd. Sir Francis Drake, English admiral who circumnavigated the globe (1577–80) and was the most renowned seaman of the Elizabethan Age. ! Landing in Patagonia, a trial was organised for Doughty who still insisted he was the true leader of the expedition. Our latest articles delivered to your inbox, once a week: Numerous educational institutions recommend us, including Oxford University and Michigan State University and University of Missouri. After a bad storm, Doughty was again stirring up mutiny and Drake struggled to keep the ships together as one fleet. Drake began one of his many voyages and he ended up going around the world to avoid the angry Spaniards. Drakes voyage took 3 years, from 1577 to 1580. Sir Francis Drake was an English explorer involved in piracy and illicit slave trading who became the second person ever to circumnavigate the globe. It had a forecastle, after-castle, and three masts with a total sail area of 4,150 square feet. After two months with no sight of land, the fleet finally reached the eastern coast of South America, north of the River Plate, in April 1578 CE. Drake, in terms of cash in his pocket, was probably then the richest man in England and he splashed out on a portfolio of properties which included Buckland Abbey. The Golden Hind recrossed the equator on 28 February 1579 CE. This was done by having all sails billowing but also towing heavy chains; when the latter were cut free under the cover of darkness, the ship bounded over the waves to stun the mostly unarmed Spanish into submission. The Capture of Cacafuego by the Golden Hindby Friedrich van Hulsen (Public Domain) The Benedict was swapped for one of the bigger Spanish vessels; a fifty-ton ship which was renamed Christopher, the Benedict itself was release… To pull his men ashore again and assured them he was absolutely command... Plymouth on Dec. 13, 1577 1936 CE but chemical analysis revealed it to be a fake ended. Francisco, CA 94102 Reservations: 800.795.7129 Hotel: 415.392.7755 Fax: 415.391.8719 a trial organised. 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